Underground                                       reports


Our underground health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives include strengthening ventilation and gas management technology, minimising risks from fires and explosions, advancing emergency response technologies, reducing operating costs and improving reliability of subsidence predictions.

Ventilation, Gas Drainage and Monitoring (106 Reports)

3D Permeability Characterisation of Large Coal Samples

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Author: Sue Golding, Paul Massarotto | University of Queensland

ACARP, Newlands and Kestrel have supported a University of Queensland project investigating the 3-dimensional permeability characteristics of coal under true triaxial stress conditions. This is achieved by using the world-first True Triaxial Stress Coal Permeameter (TTSCP), ....  read more


An Innovative Fibre Optic Based Methane Sensor

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Author: Saiied Aminossadati, Warwick Bowen, Eoin Sheridan, Mohammad Amanzadeh, Mehmet Kizil | The University of Queensland

The release of methane gas into underground coal mines is an unavoidable consequence of most coal mining operations. The presence of such gas in mine environment poses some safety and health concerns and requires constant monitoring by means of an intrinsically safe, fast, reliable and ....  read more


Appraisal of Gas Indicators from Goaf Drainage Holes for Spontaneous Combustion and Explosion Risk Management

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Author: Guangyao Si, Yuehan Wang, Zizhuo Xiang, Duncan Chalmers | University of New South Wales

In gassy underground coal mines prone to spontaneous combustion, goaf management is a challenging task to reduce the risks of gas explosion and spontaneous combustion to acceptable levels. Goaf gas drainage via vertical surface goafholes is a primary control method to manage gas emissions in ....  read more


Assessing Measurement Procedures for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Underground Coal Mining

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Author: Stuart Day, Ron McPhee | CSIRO Energy Technology, CSIRO Exploration & Mining

With the introduction of the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Act 2007, underground coal mines are now required to report their annual fugitive greenhouse emissions to the Department of Climate Change. Emission estimates are to be made in accordance with the prescribed methods of the ....  read more


Automatic Valve for Immediate Shut-Down of Gas Capture from Underground Sources

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Author: Les Lunarzewski | Lunagas

Underground gassy coal mines both throughout the world and in Australia, often experience periods of high gas emission or weekend-holiday breakdowns, in which the best option is to shut down production, clear out the area and wait for the gas to subside, resulting in costly delays and ....  read more


Borehole Dielectric Probe for the Detection of Mylonite Zones and Other Structures

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Author: Wayne Murray | CSIRO Telecommunications & Industrial Physics

The measurement of the high-frequency electrical properties of the materials surrounding a borehole can provide a means of logging changes in seam material and structure with distance along a hole and can possibly also give some positional information on roof and floor.

The electrical ....  read more


Borehole Permeability Damage and Its Impacts on Gas Drainage

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Author: Luke Connell, Rob Jeffrey, Budi Suharto | CSIRO Petroleum

Drainage of gassy coal seams using boreholes is essential to many coal mining operations. The effectiveness with which boreholes drain the coal gas is a complex function of seam and borehole properties. A complication to the drainage process occurs when the fluid permeability is lowered in the ....  read more


Borehole Pressurisation System

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Author: Ian Gray | Sigra

This report describes the development, design and surface testing of a device designed to maintain pressure in a borehole during all phases of drilling. This borehole pressurisation device is designed to fit  ....  read more


Borehole Shut Off Valve for Gas Drainage Systems

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Author: Ian Gray, Paul Petrie-Repar | Sigra

This report describes the development and form of a shut off valve designed for gas drainage systems in underground coal mines. The valve is designed to close off flow from boreholes in the event of damage to the gas drainage pipeline.

The shut off valve developed is designed ....  read more


Caliper Probe For Logging In-Seam Boreholes

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Author: Brian McCowan | ACIRL

In response to the great interest in the prediction of outburst zones and detection of geological structures, a caliper logging probe has been developed. The probe is based on the reliable and intrinsically safe ....  read more


Coal Mine Outburst Mechanism, Thresholds and Prediction Techniques

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Author: Ian Gray | Sigra

This report should be compulsory reading for those responsible for mining coal with significant gas content.

This report has been prepared as a document which describes outbursts and their mechanism in an environment where most Australian Coal miners have never seen an  ....  read more


Commercialised Version of Automatic Shut Down Valve

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Author: Les Lunarzewski | Lunagas

Underground gassy coal mines both throughout the world and in Australia, often experience periods of high gas emission or weekend-holiday breakdowns, in which the best option is to shut-down production, clear out the area and wait for the gas to subside, resulting in costly delays and ....  read more


Contamination – Ethylene from Timber Supports

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Author: Lachlan Bartrop, Snezana Bajic and Sean Muller | Simtars

This project investigated the potential, timeframes, and circumstances for timber to produce ethylene in an underground environment. The findings led to the required management of timber supports, to avoid ethylene contamination underground and to increase confidence in mine gas analysis ....  read more


Control and Management of Outburst Risk

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Author: Dennis Black | CoalGas

Outburst of coal and gas is a risk that affects many Australian underground coal mines. While the mechanisms that cause an outburst are not fully understood, the factors known to affect outburst risk include seam gas pressure, geology, and stress. Varying combinations of these and other ....  read more


Controlling Heatings and Gas Leakage Using Innovative Polymer Gel - Pilot Scale Testing

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Author: Shenggen Hu, Sheng Xue | CSIRO

The primary objective of this project was to carry out pilot scale tests of gel systems developed in ACARP project C14021 for assessing the effectiveness of the control of simulated pillar and roof fires.


In this project, the following major tasks have been completed:

 ....  read more


Coordination of In-Seam Drilling and Gas Research

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Author: John Hanes | J&SD Hanes

The objectives of this project were:

  • To maintain communications amongst all inseam drilling and gas personnel
  • To assist coordination of all research and development efforts in in-seam drilling and outbursts,
  • To assure the knowledge gained from previous
 ....  read more


Coordination of In-Seam Drilling Research

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Author: John Hanes | J & SD Hanes

In-seam drilling was recognised as the top priority for underground coal exploration research at the ACA Workshop "Underground Coal Mining Exploration Techniques" culminating in the ACARP funded In-seam Drilling Research Scoping Study completed in 1993. The Scoping Study defined the ....  read more


Co-Ordination of In-Seam Drilling Research

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Author: John Hanes | J & SD Hanes

In-seam drilling technology and priorities for its application have changed considerably since 1993 when the scoping study into in-seam drilling was conducted. Technological advances have mainly been due to the changing attitude in the industry to in-seam drilling and its role in defining ....  read more


Co-Ordination of In-Seam Drilling Research

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Author: John Hanes | J & SD Hanes

In-seam drilling technology and priorities for its application have changed considerably since 1993 when the scoping study into in-seam drilling was conducted. Technological advances have mainly been due to the changing attitude in the industry to in-seam drilling and its role in ....  read more


Co-ordination of In-Seam Drilling Research

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Author: John Hanes | J & SD Hanes

In-seam drilling technology and priorities for its application have changed considerably since 1993 when the scoping study into in-seam drilling was conducted. Technological advances have mainly been due to the changing attitude in the industry to in-seam drilling and its role in ....  read more


Data Handling for Gas Drainage Flowmeters (FREE VIA EMAIL)

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Author: Ian Gray, Paul Clemence | Sigra

This report describes the development and final form of an electronic system designed to monitor underground gas flowmeters. The system is designed to power and communicate with up to 255 devices along a twisted pair cable which may have a length of up to 2 km. The flowmeters may be replaced ....  read more


Degassing of Methane and Carbon Dioxide: Prediction of Gas Composition

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Author: Peter Crosdale | James Cook University

Coals at depths greater than 200 to 400m usually contain significant quantities of gas, which is predominantly methane (CH4 ). However, many coals contain large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and mixtures of CH4 and CO2. Safe underground coal mining requires management of these gases, ....  read more


Demonstration of Bit Torque, Load, RPM and Survey Tool

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Author: Ian Gray, Paul Clemence, Gary Paradise, Sean Charlton, Robert Dixon, Peter Hatherly | Sigra, CSIRO Exploration & Mining, CMTE

Geosteering is an oilfield term that refers to directional drilling guidance systems that have on board sensors to determine the rock type either being drilled or in proximity to the drilling head. Geosteering technology allows drills to follow target horizons and return information on the ....  read more


Develop In-Situ Test Methods for Ventilation Structures - Phase 1

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Author: Jan Oberholzer | SIMTARS

This project set out to determine the feasibility of using non-destructive testing methods to evaluate the strength of ventilation control devices to withstand the required ....  read more


Development of a General Purpose Hydrogen Sensor

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Author: M Gal, Michael Brungs | University of New South Wales

In air, concentrations of hydrogen exceeding 4% are easily ignitable and highly flammable. In coal mines, hydrogen concentrations in the range 1-200 ppm indicate the level of mine "heat up" (spontaneous combustion of the coal face), while hydrogen concentrations at percentage levels ....  read more


Development of a Hydrogen Monitor for Use In Coal Mines

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Author: Michael Brungs | University of New South Wales

Transmission of light through a palladium film changes when the film is exposed to and absorbs hydrogen. The changing transmission can be related to the hydrogen concentration and forms the basis for a hydrogen sensor.    To be useful in coal mines, the hydrogen sensor must be ....  read more


Development of a methodology for efficient design of the pattern of drainage holes based on stress variation and gas flow behaviour in coal seams

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Author: Hamid Roshan, Hossein Masoumi | University of New South Wales

Coal seam gas pre-drainage through underground-to-inseam (UIS) horizontal boreholes is one of the common practices for the management of personnel safety and environmental concerns in relation to gas concentration in underground coal mines. In the design of UIS boreholes, local experience is ....  read more


Development of a Simple Rotary Steerable System for Underground Inseam Drilling

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Author: Ian Gray, Andrew MacTaggart | Sigra

The purpose of this project was to complete the design and testing of a simple rotary steerable system to replace the downhole mud motor systems used in current underground inseam drilling programs. Rotary steerable systems are the state-of-the-art in the oil and gas industry for drilling ....  read more


Development of a Torque Thrust and RPM Sensor

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Author: Ian Gray | Sigra


This report describes the development and design of a drilling substitute (sub) containing torque and thrust sensors for use in rotary drilling or in downhole motor drilling. The sub is a mechanically simple inclusion into a drill string.

In addition to its ....  read more


Development of a Web-Based, Underground Coalmine Gas Outburst Information Management System

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Author: Naj Aziz, Richard Caladine, Lucia Tome, Ken Cram, Devendra Vyas | University of Wollongong

In February 2002 a survey result was presented at a workshop in Wollongong on ACARP Outburst Research Needs. The workshopconfirmed a strong desire by the coal industry to establish an Internet-based information management system, a gateway, on outbursts of gas and coal in ....  read more


Development of an Alternative Electronic Spark Test Apparatus

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Author: Rajiv Shekhar, Enver Bajram | CRCMining

In this phase of the project, CRCMining has further developed and demonstrated proof of concept for an electronic alternative to the Spark Test Apparatus (STA) currently used in intrinsic safety (IS) certification of power supplies for use in an explosive environment. The Electronic Spark ....  read more


Direct Measurement of the Effective Diffusion Coefficient of Coal

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Author: Peyman Mostaghimi | University of New South Wales

The effective diffusion coefficient of coal is critical in coal mining because it determines the magnitude and likelihood of gas-related dynamic failures such as outburst and, in some cases, coal burst. To assess the risk of failures using previously developed models, an accurate estimation of ....  read more


Displacement of Methane from the Goaf into the Working Place as a Result of Wind Blasts in Underground Coal Mines

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Author: Chris Fowler | University of New South Wales

The potential expulsion of methane from the goaf during wind blasts and its possible incursion into the working place has been of concern to the Australian underground coal mining industry for many years. For example, the explosions at Moura No. 4 Mine in Queensland in 1986 and at Endeavour ....  read more


Drilling for Outburst Risk Determination

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Author: Ian Gray | Sigra

This project's purpose was to determine parameters that may be indicative of outbursting from normal gas drainage drilling using down hole motors. The objectives were to measure, on a sample by sample basis, gas content and diffusion coefficient of the coal being drilled. It was also ....  read more


Drilling Technologies for Soft & Low Permeability Coals

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Author: Matt Stockwell, S Thomson, M Gledhill, T Meyer | CRCMining, University of Qld, CoalBed Concepts

This project was designed to address two specific and separate issues affecting underground inseam drilling; soft coal and tight (low permeability) coal. These two separate problems have a common tangible consequence; difficulty in draining gas to threshold levels to enable mining to proceed ....  read more


Dust Measurement and Control in Thick Seam Mining

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Author: Stewart Gillies | University of Queensland

The scoping study examined dust problems that are being faced by thick seam longwall mine operators, evaluated options and recommend priorities for improvement. The increasing scale of thick seam longwalls challenges the maintenance of safe and healthy face environments in Australian ....  read more


Evaluation of a Full Scale Pressure Test for Ventilation Control Devices

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Author: David Pearson, ADS Gillies, AR Green, R Day, P Dux | TestSafe Australia

This report describes recent research undertaken to develop, evaluate and calibrate a full-scale pressure test facility for ventilation control devices (VCDs) within Australia. It also examines a number of important aspects of stopping and seal performance, usage, design and application for the ....  read more


Evaluation of In-Seam Borehole Stability in Coal Mines

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Author: Ripu Lama | Kembla Coal & Coke

This report presents an analysis of techniques used in Australian and overseas mines to stabilise gas drainage holes drilled horizontally in coal seams, with particular reference to the Bulli Seam.   Technologies used for short hole and longhole in-seam drilling in Australia and ....  read more


Explosion Risk Exclusion Zones Around Mine Entries In Emergency Situations

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Author: Alex Remennikov, Edward Gan | University of Wollongong

The safety of personnel working in coal mines is a crucial concern that necessitates a comprehensive understanding of explosion dynamics, mining operations, and safety protocols. While there is a considerable body of knowledge about gas emissions and gas/coal dust explosions in underground ....  read more


Factors Affecting The Drainage Of Gas From Coal And Methods To Improve Drainage Effectiveness

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Author: Dennis Black | University of Wollongong

The relationship between gas production from underground-to-inseam (UIS) drainage boreholes and various coal seam properties and operational factors were examined. Gas production from 279 UIS gas drainage boreholes was collated and assessed relative to a variety of coal geological properties ....  read more


Factors Influencing the Accuracy of Measurement of Gas Content of Coal: Intercomparison of the Quick Crush Technique

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Author: Abou Saghafi, David Williams | CSIRO Energy Technology

This project investigated the variability of gas content results across three laboratories processing mine gas content using the new quick crushing or fast desorption method.

In this study some 10 horizontal boreholes were drilled into coal seams from newly developed roadways ....  read more


Field Trials of Nitrogen Injection Into UIS Directional Boreholes to Enhance Gas Drainage in Low Permeable Seams

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Author: Ting Ren, Gongda Wang, Frank Hungerford, Jia Lin, Patrick Booth, Jan Nemcik, Alex Remennikov and Naj Aziz | University of Wollongong

Pre-gas drainage is widely used as an effective method to control gas and coal outburst in underground coal mines. However difficulties of reducing gas content below threshold limit values (TLV) within a given drainage lead time have been encountered in some coal mines in QLD and NSW, ....  read more


Floor Seam Gas Emission Characterisation and Optimal Drainage Strategies for Longwall Mining

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Author: Qingdong Qu, Andy Wilkins, Rao Balusu, Johnny Qin, Manoj Khanal | CSIRO

Gas emission from floor coal seams during longwall mining can cause significant safety and productivity issues. It can result in substantial gas make in the ventilation return, exceeding the ventilation system's capacity to dilute the gas to a safe level. Sudden releases of gas into the ....  read more


Foam Injection Technologies for Goaf Inertisation

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Author: Patrick Humphries, Ting Ren, Srinivasa Yarlagadda | CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering

This report consists of the summary of the research work carried out under the Australian coal association research program (ACARP) project C15020 -"Foam Injection technologies for Goaf Inertisation". The main objective of the project is to develop and demonstrate the application of ....  read more


Further Development of Remote Control Outburst Mining

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Author: P Wynne, R Case | Kembla Coal & Coke

This report details advances made and technology trialed when remote mining was undertaken at Tahmoor. Remote mining had previously been demonstrated at Tahmoor as an alternative strategy to counter the significant risk posed by the possibility of outbursts.

 ....  read more


Gas Detection Technique and Equipment to Continuously Monitor Gas in Drill Fluid

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Author: Les Lunarzewski | Lunagas

A fluid logging system for underground drilling can be used as a complementary method for the recognition of gas and gas-rock outburst prone conditions ahead of the face and along an inseam drill hole.   Mud logging technology has been used in surface boreholes in the oil industry, ....  read more


Gas Drainability and Outburst Risk Assessment based on the Distribution of Micro-Markers in Coal Seams

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Author: Andrew Gurba, Lila Gurba, Colin Ward, Jeff Wood | AGURBA, CCSD, University of New South Wales, BHP Billiton Illawarra Coal

Access to underground coal reserves in Australia and other coal producing countries is often conditional on the reduction of coal gas content to below specified regulatory outburst threshold limits. Reduction of gas content is generally achieved by pre-drainage of the coal seam using ....  read more


Gas Drainage Efficiency Improvement

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Author: Andrew Gurba, Lila Gurba, Colin Ward, Andrew Filipowski | AGURBA, University of NSW, Coal Geotechnical Services

Access to underground coal reserves in Australia and other coal producing countries is often conditional on the reduction of coal gas content to below specified regulatory outburst threshold limits. Reduction of gas content is generally achieved by pre-drainage of the coal seam using ....  read more


Gas Drainage Flowmeter

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Author: Ian Gray | Sigra

This report describes the development of a flow meter for gas drainage operations. It is designed to be inexpensive and to be able to be monitored automatically utilising intrinsically safe electronics.

 ....  read more


Gas Emission Curves for Sealed Goafs or Abandoned Mines

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Author: Les Lunarzewski | Lunagas

Lunagas was asked to perform a professional data and results analysis regarding gas emission phenomenon for sealed goaves and abandoned coal mines in Australia. Consequently, historical data and results for the period 1985 - 2004 were used to establish the most typical curves, which  ....  read more


Gas Management and Risk Mitigation Strategies for Longwalls

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Author: Rao Balusu, Krishna Tanguturi and Qingdong Qu | CSIRO

The main objective of this project was to develop optimum goaf gas management and risk mitigation strategies for highly gassy longwall mines. The project aimed to obtain a fundamental understanding of the effect of various parameters on goaf gas distribution patterns and investigate the ....  read more


Goaf Gas Flow Modelling Using Ventsim: Methods, Tools and Tests

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Author: Qingdong Qu, Krishna Tanguturi, Andy Wilkins, Martin Griffith | CSIRO, Howden Ventsim Australia

Effective goaf management requires a thorough understanding of goaf gas behaviour under varying conditions such as mine ventilation systems, goaf drainage, inertisation, barometric pressure change and goaf consolidation. However, there is a lack of a practical tool that mine ventilation ....  read more


High Speed Cross Panel Drilling

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Author: Paul Dunn, Mark Stockwell, Scott Adam, I Hutchinson, I Mason, E Schultz | University of Queensland, CSIRO Exploration & Mining, University of Sydney

Gas drainage is a major issue currently affecting underground coal mines. The difficulties associated with underground gas drainage are partly responsible for the poor development rates for longwall coal blocks; these in turn limit coal production from underground operations. In an ....  read more


High Speed Cross Panel Drilling System

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Author: Paul Dunn, Matt Stockwell, S Adam, Ian Hutchinson, Iain Mason, E Shultz | CMTE, University of Queensland, CSIRO Exploration & Mining, University of Sydney

Gas drainage is a major issue currently affecting underground coal mines. The difficulties associated with underground gas drainage are partly responsible for poor development rates for longwall coal blocks; this in turn limits coal production from underground operations. In an effort to ....  read more


High Speed In-seam Drilling System for Effective Gas Drainage

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Author: Scott Adam, Joel Kok, David Barry, Siqi Pan, Nathanial Thomlinson, Enver Bajram, James Welsh | CRCMining

A continuous feed, high speed drilling system for underground gas drainage promises to transform productivity of underground coal gas drainage drilling. CRCMining has been developing continuous waterjet drilling technology for over two decades. Recent commercialization of the surface to inseam ....  read more


Impact of Core Sample Recovery Time on Accuracy of Gas Content Measurement

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Author: Dennis Black | Coal Gas

The measurement of coal seam gas content has a significant impact on safety and operational efficiency within Australian underground coal mines. There is an expectation that reported gas content values are accurate and truly represent the gas content of the coal seam in the area from which the ....  read more


Impact of Gas Composition on Outburst Propensity of Coal

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Author: Ting Ren, Dennis Black, Patrick Booth, Jia Lin, Gaofeng Liu, Ming Qiao & Zhongbei Li | University of Wollongong

Pre-drainage of coal seam gas is practised in Australian underground coal mines to reduce gas content below the outburst threshold limit values (TLV) to mitigate coal and gas outburst risk. The current TLVs assume that coal containing CO2 seam gas has a significantly higher risk of outburst ....  read more


Implications of Production Scale Hydraulic Fracturing by Coal Bed Methane Drainage Operations on the Subsequent Safe and Efficient Mineability of Coal Seams

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Author: Ken Mills, Rob Jeffrey, Winton Gale | Hydraulic Fracturing Technology, SCT Operations Pty Ltd, CSIRO Petroleum

Production scale hydraulic fracturing is routinely used by petroleum operators to stimulate water and gas production in coal bed methane projects.  Where petroleum leases overlap with current or future coal mining leases, production scale hydraulic fracturing has been identified by ....  read more


Improved Application of Gas Reservoir Parameters

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Author: Ray Williams, E Yurakov | GeoGAS, CSIRO Energy Technology, James Cook University, Multiphase Technologies

The project is centred on improving the understanding and accuracy of gas reservoir modelling applied to coal mining. It covers a description and evaluation of the input parameters, primarily gas content, permeability, relative permeability, gas sorption capacity, desorption ....  read more


Improved Efficiency of Gas Capture from Boreholes Under Active Longwall Panels

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Author: Winton Gale, Adrian Rippon, Ben Blacka | SCT Operations

Mines can be affected by seams with a high gas content underlying the target mining horizon. Additional gas can be liberated from these seams during longwall extraction making it difficult to maintain an efficient drainage program. If the permeability of the lower seams is low, then ....  read more


In-Seam Drill Monitoring (Stage 3)

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Author: Richard Danell | BHP Coal

This report documents the work conducted during Stage 3 of an ACARP project entitled ‘In-seam Drill Monitoring’. This project is part of an integrated in-seam drilling research program that aims to increase the effectiveness of underground drilling operations. BHP has conducted ....  read more


In-Seam Drill Monitoring and Bit Location System - Stage 1

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Author: Richard Danell, G Duncan, L Leung, T Lewandowski | BHP Research

This project documents work done during stage 1 of the three stage ACARP project. It is part of an integrated in seam drilling research program supported by the ACA which aims to increase the effectiveness of underground drilling operations.

The project ....  read more


In-Seam Drill Monitoring and Bit Location System (Stage 2)

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Author: Richard E Danell, T Lewandowski, C McLeod, L Leung | BHP Research Newcastle Laboratories, BHP Steel

This report documents the work conducted during Stage 2 of an ACARP project entitled 'In-seam drill monitoring and bit location system'. The project is part of an integrated in-seam drilling research program which aims to increase the effectiveness of underground drilling operations. ....  read more


Investigation of the Potential for Pre-Drainage of the Lower Seams at Appin Colliery Utilising Hydra

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Author: Kevin Meaney | CSIRO Petroleum Resources

This report examines the potential for enhancing gas drainage performance from the lower coal seams of the Illawarra coal measures by utilising hydraulic fracturing in cross measure holes to stimulate gas production.  The relative impacts of drainage hole spacing and drainage time are ....  read more


Laboratory Evaluation of Airflow Effects on Coal Self Heating Incubation Behaviour

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Author: Basil Beamish, Jan Theiler | B3 Mining Services

It is important to understand the influence of mine ventilation on the likelihood of developing of a spontaneous combustion event in a longwall mining environment. To date there has been a general concept proposed for a “critical velocity zone” to exist where conditions are ideal ....  read more


Laboratory Study Of Coal Properties & Outburst Simulation - Application To Gas Drainage, Outburst Prediction, Control & Management

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Author: Xavier Choi | CSIRO Petroleum

This project is an extension of work conducted in Project C6024 (Wold and Choi, 1999) and C9023 (Choi and Wold, 2003). Some of the results from Project C11030 (Wold et al., 2006) were also utilised in this project. The aims of the research project were to:

· Improve the ....  read more


Likelihood of High Overpressures on Seals

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Author: R. L. Davis, J. W. Oberholzer, M. Gido, A. D. S. Gillies, H. W. Wu | Simtars and Gillies Wu Mining Technology

The US Sago mine disaster in 2006 caused mine seals to be destroyed by an atmospheric explosion. Investigations into the appropriateness of seal strength requirements to withstand a pressure event followed. New designs have been developed and various US changes implemented.  Australian ....  read more


Longhole Water-Jet Drilling for Gas Drainage

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Author: Matt Stockwell, M Gledhill, S Hildebrand, S Adam, Tim Meyer | CMTE, University of Qld

In-seam drilling for gas drainage is now an essential part of operations at many Australian underground coalmines. Gas drainage is required to reduce inseam gas content to below threshold levels for safe roadway development and panel extraction. Failure to drain coal increases the risk of ....  read more


Longhole Waterjet Rotary Drilling for In-Seam Gas Drainage

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Author: Paul Dunn, M Stockwell, T Meyer | CMTE, University of Queensland, Aquamin Research

Gas drainage is a major issue currently affecting underground coal mines. The difficulties associated with underground gas drainage are partly responsible for the poor development rates for longwall coal blocks; this in turn limits coal production from underground operations. In an ....  read more


Maximising Coal Production in the Presence of H2S Seam Gas

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Author: Stewart Gillies | University of Queensland

The study addresses Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) in coal seams. The objectives of the project were to undertake a comprehensive series of interrelated studies to gain a full understanding of this complex problem. The goal was to understand how, where and why high concentration zones of H2S ....  read more


Measurement and Reporting of Fugitive Emissions from Underground Coal Mines

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Author: Dennis Black | PacificMGM

The National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Act 2007 (Act), the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Regulations 2008 (Regulations) made under that Act and the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting (Measurement) Determination 2008 (No.1) (the Determination) ....  read more


Modelling of Strata Gas and Water Transport to the Mining Area

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Author: Zhejun Pan | CSIRO

During underground longwall coal mining, roof rocks collapse to fill the mined area as mining progresses. This creates fractures on the strata above the goaf area, which provide flow pathways for the gas and water in the overlying strata to migrate into the mining area. Gas may also migrate to ....  read more


New Approaches to Mine Gas Analysis and Ratios

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Author: Fiona Clarkson | Simtars

The spontaneous combustion of coal remains a hazard in underground coal mines. Previous research has indicated that alkanes larger than ethane, propane, volatile organics and aldehydes may be present when coal self-heats. The presence of these compounds in operating underground coal mines in ....  read more


Numerical Modelling of Outburst Mechanisms and the Role of Mixed Gas Desorption

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Author: Xavier Choi, Mike Wold | CSIRO Petroleum

This project is an extension of Project C6024 (Wold and Choi, 1999). The project aims to develop a high level numerical model for the simulation of coal and gas outbursts, for the purposes of:

  • improved application of outburst risk criteria under variable mining conditions
 ....  read more


Optimisation of Longwall Goaf Gas Drainage & Control Systems

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Author: Rao Balusu, Neil Ruffs, Ron Peace, Tim Harvey, Shen Zue, Haruko Ishikawa | CSIRO Exploration & Mining, Central Colliery, Appin Colliery, Anglo Coal

The main objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate optimum goaf gas drainage and control strategies for improved gas management in longwall panels in order to reduce gas delays on the face. The project has combined extensive field studies together with computational fluid ....  read more


Optimisation of the Coal Seam Gas Predrainage Design Process

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Author: Mark Blanch, Eugene Yurakov | Palaris Australia

This project focused on improving the effectiveness and efficiency of gas predrainage programs to be employed in the underground coal industry. It covered a description of fundamental coal seam and gas reservoir parameters as they relate to coal seam gas predrainage and provides a depiction of ....  read more


Optimising Sand-Propped Hydraulic Fracture Stimulation of In-Seam Gas Drainage Holes

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Author: Rob Jeffrey, Luke Connell, Ken Mills | CSIRO Petroleum, SCT Operations

Dartbrook coal mine sponsored a trial of sand-propped hydraulic fracturing as a way of stimulating gas drainage rates from in-seam horizontal gas drainage boreholes. The trial placed 20 propped fractures in a borehole drilled from 10 cut through and 10 fractures in a second borehole ....  read more


Outburst Mechanisms: Coupled Fluid Flow-Geomechanical Modelling of Mine Development

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Author: Mike Wold, Xavier Choi | CSIRO Petroleum

Outburst risk management

A gas outburst is an essentially dynamic event in which coal and/or rock is projected into a mine opening, accompanied by a rapid release of gas. In Australian experience, the mass of coal/rock may range from small (less than 1 t) to very ....  read more


Outburst Risk Determination and Associated Factors

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Author: Ian Gray, Jeff Wood | Sigra

This report covers an investigation into the factors that lead to an outburst. It also covers the processes of measurement to arrive at the quantification of these and the shortcomings thereof. As part of the study a large number of outburst cases have been examined. This data base has come ....  read more


Phase II - Tools to simplify the Coiled Tube Drilling System and Phase I - Coiled Tubing Drilling System Development - Risk Mitigation

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Author: S Adam, M Stockwell, P Lever, A Bewley, E Prochon, S Leonard, Joe Cronin | CRCMining

This project is a continuation of ACARP project C17017 "Phase I - Coiled Tube Drilling System Development - Risk Mitigation".  The Phase I project developed a concept and performance specification for an underground in-seam coiled tube drilling rig. It also addressed a range of ....  read more


Precursors and New Understanding of High Gas Emissions at Appin Colliery Through Microseismic Monitoring

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Author: Xun Luo, Peter Hatherly | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

During part of 1996, a microseismic monitoring program was carried out at Appin Colliery to investigate the geomechanical behaviour associated with longwall mining. The data obtained in that study also provided the opportunity to investigate any seismic signatures associated with gas ....  read more


Predictions of Outbursts in Underground Coal Mines Based on Radon-222 Anomalies

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Author: Wlodek Zahorowski, S Whittlestone | ANSTO

The frequency and magnitude of instantaneous outbursts increase with depth and rising advance rate. These conditions are increasingly common in coal mining. Effective outburst management strategies will have to respond to this challenge. Unfortunately, most current methods of evaluation ....  read more


Real Time Return Gas Monitoring for Outburst and Gas Drainage Assessment

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Author: Ray J Williams, Mike I Slater | GeoGas

The aim of this project was to create a turn key, prototype, stand alone, real time, gas monitoring system capable of providing quantitative assessments of gassiness levels on at least a shift by shift basis and enabling unusual gas emission patterns to be readily flagged. The project involved ....  read more


Reliable Determination of Strata Gas Content Using Geophysical Logs and Laboratory Measurements

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Author: Guangyao Si, Zexin Yu, Joung Oh, Peyman Mostaghimi, Zhentao Li | University of New South Wales

The coal mining industry in Australia is facing the ever increasing challenge of managing gas emissions. The coal extraction process in underground mines can significantly alter stress and fracture distributions around mine openings, which forms flow channels for gas emissions into longwall ....  read more


Remote Methane Measurement in Underground Coal Mines

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Author: Chris Fowler | University of New South Wales

No gas sensor currently employed in underground coal mines is capable of remote sensing. Such a device would be of considerable benefit to the Australian coal mining industry in that it would facilitate methane detection and measurement in difficult-to-access locations.

The ....  read more


Reproducibility of Gas Content Measurements Using the Fast Desorption Technique

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Author: Richard Danell, Abouna Saghafi , Ray Williams , Jeff Wood | BHP Billiton, CSIRO Energy Technology, GeoGAS

Gas content measurement is a principal tool for the assessment and management of outburst risk by the Australian underground coal industry. Most gassy underground mines use a gas content threshold as a major determinant as to whether mining is permitted to take place. Gas content measurement ....  read more


Review of Inseam Drilling Practice

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Author: S. Thomson, Z. Qzn | CoalBed Concepts, CRC Mining

It has long been recognised that current inseam drilling practice in Australia has serious limitations and likely results in higher than necessary costs to mining operations.  Failed boreholes due to "boggy ground" and poorly performing individual borehole drainage are a common ....  read more


Revisiting the fast desorption method – Initial gas release from pulverised coal

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Author: Jun-Seok Bae, Xin Xiang Yu, Rao Balusu | CSIRO

Gas content measurement in a coal seam is critical to design gas drainage systems and assess mine ventilation requirements, directly affecting coal production rates and thus being required to be measured for outburst management compliance. Gas content is a basis for outburst threshold ....  read more


Sensing and Logging for In-Seam Boreholes

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Author: Peter Hatherly, Richard Dixon, T Tchen, Z Jecny, C Ceravolo | CSIRO Exploration & Mining, CSIRO Applied Science

The objectives of this project were to develop sensors for determining the position of the drill bit within the coal seam (roof-floor proximity)  and develop geophysical logging tools for indicating geological conditions within the borehole

  ....  read more


Specific Gas Emission Patterns from Different Coal Seams

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Author: Qingdong Qu, Rao Balusu, Andy Wilkins, Roy Moreby | CSIRO, Morvent Mining

Gas emission prediction plays a critical role in mine ventilation and gas drainage planning and design, to meet coal production targets and safety standards. Gas emission is often expressed in the form of specific gas emission (SGE, unit: m3/t), which refers to the volume of gas emitted per ....  read more


Standard for In-Seam Drilling Equipment

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Author: Rodney Young | Applied Electro Systems

The aim of this project was to define a common electrical and mechanical specification for the manufacture and deployment of sensor equipment that may be used behind the motor in inseam drilling. The goal was to facilitate the testing and use of new sondes. The need ....  read more


Stimulation of Gas Make from Horizontal In-Seam Drain Holes by Hydraulic Fracturing

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Author: Rob Jeffrey | CSIRO Petroleum

Hydraulic fracturing was attempted as a way of stimulating horizontal gas drainage holes in coal at German Creek Mine, Central Colliery. Work was carried out in one horizontal hole  ....  read more


Sudden Outbursts of Gas and Coal in Underground Coal Mines

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Author: J Bodziony, Ripu Lama | Kembla Coal & Coke

The phenomenon of outbursts of gas, coal and rock is neither new nor isolated in its occurrence to a particular coal field. It has occurred in virtually all the major coal producing countries of the world.  In the last 150 years, as many as 30,000 outbursts have occurred in the world, ....  read more


Symposium on Management and Control of High Gas Emissions and Outbursts in Underground Coal Mines

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Author: Ripu Lama | Kembla Coal & Coke

This conference was held from 20-24 March 1995 at Wollongong. It was attended by 220 delegates from 14 countries, and advanced the mining industry's understanding of the causes and prediction of gas induced outbursting in coal mines.

 ....  read more


Technology and Feasibility of Potential Underground Thick Seam Mining Methods

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Author: Bruce Hebblewhite, Y Cai, A Simonis | University of New South Wales, CMTE

In Australia there are over 17 Billion tonnes of resources of thick coal seams applicable to extraction by underground methods. There have been a number of research investigations over the past twenty years to investigate safe and efficient means of extracting these resources. However the ....  read more


The Application of Infra-Red ‘Open Path’ Methane Detection and Measurement to Australian Underground Coal Mines

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Author: Chris Fowler | University of New South Wales

Infra-red 'open path' methane detection and measurement has been widely adopted by the oil, gas and petrochemical industries. Such systems determine in-situ methane concentration over a path between two points where the path length may vary from 500 mm to more than 200 metres. Coal industry ....  read more


The Barclay Mowlem Mine Ventilation Systems

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Author: Mike Downs | Barclay Mowlem Construction

The test programme of 4 consecutive blasts and 1 further `inadvertent' blast, conclusively demonstrated that the overcast design can successfully withstand the target rating of 5 psi.  The level of blast intensity applied, the deformation response of the structure and the basic ....  read more


The Development of a Geosteering Tool for In-Seam Drilling

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Author: Ian Gray, Paul Clemence, Gary Paradise, Sean Charlton, Robert Dixon, Peter Hatherly | Sigra, CSIRO Exploration & Mining, CMTE

Geosteering is an oilfield term that refers to directional drilling guidance systems that have on board sensors to determine the rock type either being drilled or in proximity to the drilling head. Geosteering technology allows drills to follow target horizons and return information on the ....  read more


The Effects of Water Within the Coal Matrix on Gas Drainage

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Author: Zhejun Pan, Michael Camilleri, Luke Connell | CSIRO Petroleum Resources

Gas drainage from coal is a complex process whereby gas, initially adsorbed within the coal matrix, becomes a free phase and migrates through the matrix into the cleat system and eventually into a drainage borehole. The effect of water in the cleat system on the gas migration process is well ....  read more


The Geophysical Estimation Of Concentration and Composition of Gas In-place In Un-mined Coal Seams

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Author: Mark Lwin | Curtin University

The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate an ability to predict concentration and composition of Gas In Place (GIP) from a deterministic analysis of geophysical logs and laboratory measurements on core samples. We have achieved this goal in respect to the determination of gas ....  read more


The Green Book - Spontaneous Combustion in Australian Coal Mines

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Author: David Cliff, Darren Brady, Martin Watkinson | University of Queensland, Mine Safety Institute of Australia, Simtars

This reference text called 'The Green Book', was prepared by Simtars in 1996 in response to a need for reference material on spontaneous combustion which relates to Australian coal mining practices and conditions.


This new edition reflects the significant ....  read more


Validation and Application of a Numerical Outburst Model as a Tool for Outburst Management Through Field Studies

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Author: Xavier Choi | CSIRO

1. The basic underlying mechanism for outburst initiation involves the expulsion of coal at a pressure gradient above a critical value which is directly related to the strength and porosity of the coal at the current state. Coal strength, porosity, stress, gas pressure and pressure gradient are ....  read more


Variability of Coal Seam Parameters for Improved Risk Assessment for Gas Outburst in Coal Mines

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Author: Mike Wold, Luke Connell, S K Choi | CSIRO

The project was undertaken by CSIRO Petroleum with the broad objective of improving the basis for gas outburst risk assessment.  The roles of coal permeability and strength in gas outburst mechanisms were investigated with particular reference to their spatial variability on a  ....  read more


Ventilation and Gas Management - Underground Coal Mines

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Author: Bruce Robertson, Andrew Self | Bruce Robertson Consultant

This planning guideline has been prepared to assist mine operators to apply a best practice approach to ventilation and gas drainage planning. It has been prepared on the basis that there is room for improvement and more consistency in the process of developing and maintaining ventilation ....  read more


VR-CFD Based Simulation Tool for Dust Control in Gateroad Development Panels

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Author: Ting Ren, Jon Roberts, Jennifer Hines, Casey Chow, Ming Qiao, Wei Zong, Guoxin Su, Faisal Hai and Willy Susilo, Adrian Sugden, Andrew Clayton, Mark Shepherd, Matthew Farrelly, Gareth Kennedy | University of Wollongong, Coal Services, Independent VR Consulting, Simtars

Long term exposure to dust particles, in particular respirable dust, continues to present a health and safety hazard to mine workers in underground coal mines. Workers who are exposed to coal dust can develop occupational lung diseases including coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) or ....  read more


Waterjet Assisted Drilling of In-Seam Cross Panel Methane Drainage Holes

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Author: Paul Dunn, M Stockwell | CMTE, University of Queensland, CSIRO Exploration & Mining

For many mines poor development rates for longwall coal blocks are linked closely to problems of underground gas drainage. In an effort to address current safety issues associated with methane drainage and improve longwall productivity, the CMTE has been investigating the applicability of high ....  read more



Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C34019Longwall Bretby Cable Handling Monitoring With Fibre Optics

This project examined the potential of using fibre optic sensing tec...

C28028The Inclusion Of High Interest Native Plants In Mine Site Restoration Programs: Propagation, Translocation And Field Re-Introduction

This report synthesises over 10 years of ex situ and in si...

C27049Mine Machine Radar Sensor Integration

The aim of this project was to develop an integrated radar sensor an...


Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

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Rapid evaluation of a coal resource by in-situ characterisation dow...

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The purpose of this project was to develop a guidelines document as ...

C34016Elements In Coal – A Start-To-End Analysis

This project explores the fate and concentration potential of critical e...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C26016Determining The Benefits Of Online Thickener Underflow Rheology Measurements

The aim of this project is to determine how useful the rheology meas...

C33056Modelling And Control Of Classifying Cyclones

Hydrocyclones are one of the key technologies for the classification...

C28056Surface Alloying Of Centrifuge Baskets And Sieve Bends Screen Surfaces To Increase The Service Lifetime

The main objective of this project was to improve the wear resistanc...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

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Based on the hypothesis that the levels of sulfur and other toxic tr...

C34060In-Situ Investigation Of Coke Structure Formation Under Stamp Charged Coking Conditions

Stamp charged cokemaking has emerged as an effective technique to im...

C34062Improving The Classification Of Microstructure Distribution In Coke CT Images Using Deep Learning And Lineal Path Calculations

This project builds on a number of earlier projects that have helped...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

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This third and final stage of this project was the culmination of a ...

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Application of ventilation air methane (VAM) thermal oxidiser requir...

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This multi‐phase project is concerned with the mitigation of m...

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community


National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

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Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

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Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook