Open Cut                                          reports

Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research. We have supported work on an automated swing loading system for electric shovels, the science of rehabilitation and minimising mining impacts on neighbouring communities.

Environment (148 Reports)

A Method To Assess And Minimise The Potential For Fume Generation From Blasting

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Author: Gary Cavanough, Alastair Torrance, Italo Onederra, Virginia Bailey & Hector Parra | CSIRO

Post blast fume generation is a significant issue in open cut mining operations. The fumes produced can have significant health implications and potentially, serious safety, environmental and financial impacts.

This project was initiated in an effort to understand the mechanism for ....  read more


A Model of Long-Term Salt Movement in Reconstructed Soil Profiles Following Open Cut Coal Mining in Central Queensland

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Author: Andrew Grigg, T Baumgartl | Centre for Mined Land Rehabilition, University of Qld

Waste rock materials exposed at the surface following open-cut coal mining in central Queensland are commonly saline, impacting on the success of revegetation efforts. The aim of this study was to develop a simple model that predicts the removal of salts from reconstructed soil profiles by ....  read more


A Study of Sustainability and Profitability of Grazing on Mine Rehabilitated Land in the Upper Hunter NSW

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Author: Neil Griffiths and Harry Rose | NSW Department of Primary Industries

This study was initiated by the Upper Hunter Mining Dialogue (UHMD) which comprises stakeholders from coal mining, agriculture, community and environment groups, and local and state government. The UHMD had questions around the sustainability and profitability of mine land which was ....  read more


Adaption of Design Tools to Better Design Rehabilitation and Capping over Highly Mobile Mine Waste

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Author: Dimuth Welivitiya, Garry Willgoose, Gregory Hancock | The University of Newcastle

Post mining landforms are constructed of unconsolidated material which can be highly erodible. In such structures of loosely bonded material, rill erosion and gully erosion are major issues. To ensure long term stability and sustainability, these landforms need to be designed to minimise ....  read more


An Improved Understanding of The Impacts of Blue-Green Algae Associated with Coal Mining and Identification of the Opportunities to Reduce Impacts at Selected Coal Mines

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Author: Larelle Fabbro, Leo Duivenvoorden | Central Qld University

The objectives for this project were:

  • Provide a review of the latest research and water industry findings as to health related issues and water treatment methodologies for the species present in mine waters
  • Review current operational
 ....  read more


An Integrated Program to Control the Welcome Swallow in Mine Buildings

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Author: Brian Stone, David Goldney | University of Sydney - Orange

The Welcome Swallow (Hirundo neoxena) poses a major Occupational Health and Safety concern in the maintenance workshops of a number of Coal Mines in the Hunter Valley, NSW, as it can roost in large numbers in large workshop buildings. To date a variety of ad hoc methods have been employed ....  read more


Annotated Bibliography of Rehabilitation on Coal Mines in New South Wales

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Author: Melina Gillespie, G McIllveen, A Pudmenzky, B West, David Mulligan | University of Qld, Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation


The outcomes for projects C19030, C15045 and C12044 have been UPDATED and are available at C22026.

Full results are available from

An annotated bibliography of rehabilitation on New South Wales coal mines ....  read more


Applying Risk-based Principles of Dispersive Mine Spoil Behaviour to Facilitate Development of Cost-effective Best Management Practices

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Author: Glenn Dale, Evan Thomas & Laura McCallum; Steven Raine, John Bennett and Kate Reardon-Smith | Verterra Ecological Engineering, University of Southern Queensland

Sustainable closure of coal mines in Australia remains one of the industry's biggest challenges. This issue is amplified when spoil characteristics make rehabilitation difficult and costly. A significant proportion of mines in the Bowen Basin of Queensland have dispersive spoil. It is ....  read more


Aquaculture as a Relinquishment Option for Final Voids

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Author: Glen Whisson, Louis Evans | Curtin University of Technology

Relinquishment of final mining voids is a significant issue for coal mining companies. The cost of rehabilitating mine voids to land fill and re-establishment of pre-existing terrestrial habitats is prohibitive and not considered to be a viable commercial option by most coal mining ....  read more


Artificial Structures to Enhance Microbat Habitat Values and Accelerate Vertebrate Fauna Colonisation within Mine Rehabilitation within the Bowen Basin, Central Queensland - Microbats

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Author: Lindsay Agnew, Andrew Veary | ECOServe

For an increasing number of open cut coal mines in central Queensland, overall rehabilitation objectives include the re-establishment of self-sustaining ecosystems that reflect biodiversity values of the land prior to mining. Vertebrate fauna is a key component of such biodiversity values, and ....  read more


Assessing Environmental Safety of In-pit Disposal of Tailings in Coal Mines

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Author: Thomas Baumgartl, Mansour Edraki, Jinhee Park | The University of Queensland

In-pit disposal of tailings can be beneficial because of the stability of tailings storage attained by placing the tailings below the natural ground surface, thereby reducing risk of wall failure. However, there is a potential risk of contaminant release into the surrounding environment through ....  read more


Assessing The Ecotoxicology Of Salinity On Organisms In Seasonally Flowing Streams In The Fitzroy Catchment

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Author: Rajesh Prasad, Sue Vink, Reinier Mann, Vinitha Nanjappa and Satish Choy | The University of Queensland, Department of Environment and Resource Management

Stage One Report: Development Of Ecosystem Protection Trigger Values For Sodium Sulfate In Seasonally Flowing Streams Of The Fitzroy River Basin

Coal mines in the Bowen Basin have reduced freshwater consumption by implementing water re-use in operations. This has resulted in ....  read more


Assessing the Extent, Spread and Risk of Pasture Dieback on Mine Site Rehabilitation Using Remote Sensing

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Author: Phill McKenna | The University of Queensland

Over the last three-decades there have been multiple instances of unexplained widespread decline and death of native and exotic pasture grass species in northern, central, and southern Queensland. A causal link between previous cases, known as Buffel Dieback (BD), and current (post-2016) ....  read more


Assessing the Toxicity of Saline Solutions with Different Ionic Compositions on Freshwater Organisms

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Author: Sue Vink, Vinitha Nanjappa, Alexandra Wolhuter, Alexandra Henderson | The University of Queensland

Salinization of freshwater systems is being increasingly recognised as a global issue. Regulating diffuse and point source saline inputs to freshwater systems is difficult owing to the complex interactions that influence both the direct and indirect effects of salinity on individual species and ....  read more


Assessment of Seasonal Habitat Characteristics as Predictors of Habitat Suitability for the Threatened Ornamental Snake

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Author: Andrew Veary | Footprints Environmental Consultants

The ACARP funded ornamental snake Research Program was undertaken to provide a greater understanding of the habitat usage and ecological requirements of the threatened ornamental snake (Denisonia maculata) within the Bowen Basin mining province.  The ornamental snake was recognised ....  read more


Bibliography of Rehabilitation on Coal Mines in Central Queensland

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Author: J Georgeff, Andrew Grigg, David Mulligan | Centre for Mined Land Rehabilition, University of Qld


The outcomes for projects C19030, C15045 and C12044 have been UPDATED and are available at C22026.

Full results are available from

A large body of information on all aspects of coal-mine rehabilitation in ....  read more


Centre for Sustainable Mine Lakes

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Author: Louis Evans, G Ivey, C Oldham, M Lund, Yuden, C McCullough, Y Tsvetnenko, D Scott | Curtin University of Technology, Edith Cowan University, University of Western Australia

The Centre for Sustainable Mine Lakes (CSML) was formed in 2002 in response to an urgent need for environmental and social science required for underpinning the closure of open cut mines, and for the identification and evaluation of sustainable beneficial end uses of mine sites ....  read more


Characterising and Assessing Fine Particle Concentrations in the Hunter Valley

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Author: Peter Nelson, Anthony Morrison, Brendan Halliburton, Robert Rowland, John Carras | CCSD, Macquarie University, CSIRO Energy Technology

Particle, or dust, emissions from open cut coal mining have been the subject of significant investigation over a number of years. Previous ACARP projects investigated the issues surrounding particle emissions from coal mining in the Hunter Valley (Holmes Air Sciences 1999; Richardson 1999; ....  read more


Characterising and Assessing Fine Particle Concentrations in the Hunter Valley - Implications of National Environment Protection Measures for the Coal Mining Industry

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Author: Peter Nelson, Anthony Morrison, Brendan Halliburton, Robert Rowland, John Carras, David Cohen, Eduard Stelcer | Macquarie University, ANSTO, CSIRO Energy Technology, CCSD

Particle, or dust, emissions from open cut coal mining have been the subject of significant investigation over a number of years. Previous ACARP projects investigated the issues surrounding particle emissions from coal mining in the Hunter Valley (Holmes Air Sciences 1999; Richardson 1999; ....  read more


Coal Mine Open Pit Final Void Closure and Relinquishment - Addressing Uncertainty in Coal Mine Environmental Planning

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Author: David Salmon | Amanzi Consulting

This report addresses uncertainties faced by coal mine operators when assessing and planning options and implementing rehabilitation designs and methods during the closure of opencast coal mine voids to ensure safe, stable, non-polluting, and sustainable post mining void uses.

 ....  read more


Coal Mine Particulate Emission Factor Validation

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Author: Judith Cox | Pacific Environment

There is significant concern in the coal mining industry regarding the accuracy of air emissions estimation calculations/emissions inventories that are ultimately used to inform government air quality policy. In particular, the potential for overestimation of mining related particulate matter ....  read more


Coal Pit Lake Closure by River Flow Through: Risks and Opportunities

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Author: Mark Lund, Melanie Blanchette | Edith Cowan University

In 2011, the river diversion channel around Lake Kepwari, a former open cut coal pit in Collie (Western Australia) was breached during a storm event. The effects of the breach showed potential for improving water quality in the pit lake with limited impact on the river downstream (according to ....  read more


Coal Seam Gas, Coal and Agriculture: Water Implications

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Author: Lauren Kaye, Damian Barrett, Sue Vink, Estelle Roux, Cody-Ellen Murray, Jackson White, Sarah Robbins | Centre for Water in the Minerals Industry, Sustainable Minerals Institute, The University of Queensland

This document was commissioned by ACARP to improve the understanding of conflict for water resources between the established coal mining and agricultural sectors and the rapidly expanding Coal Seam Gas (CSG) industry.


The external drivers acting on these three sectors and ....  read more


Collaborative Performance Trajectories for Diversion Approvals Relinquishment

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Author: Karen White, Rohan Lucas, Selene Conn, Leonie Duncan, Ross Hardie | Alluvium Australia

The aim of this project is to add a further technical component and a social approach to determining performance standards for diversions at relinquishment. The objectives of this project are to:

· Identify acceptable condition trajectories for diversions that would allow for future ....  read more


Completion Criteria for Pasture Based Rehabilitation in the Bowen Basin

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Author: Andrew Grigg, BR Emmerton, NJ McCallum | CMLR, University of Queensland

Fundamental parameters for surface stability and vegetation performance have been developed for ungrazed rehabilitation pastures on central queensland coal mines.  It is widely recognised within the mining industry that criteria used to evaluate rehabilitation for lease surrender and to ....  read more


Contribution of Mining Emissions to NO2 and PM10 in the Upper Hunter Region

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Author: Howard Bridgman, John Carras | University of Newcastle, CSIRO

This project focuses on fine particles (PM10, PM2.5) and nitrogen oxides (NOx, NO2) in the Upper Hunter Region, NSW. It consists of four sections, each with specific goals:

  • Section 1 describes a detailed sources and emissions inventory for the Upper Hunter
 ....  read more


Cost-efficient, Empirically Based Framework Using Integrated Datasets to Demonstrate Rehabilitation Quality

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Author: Kasper Johansen, Peter Erskine | The University of Queensland

Mine sites are required to rehabilitate their final landforms with a safe, stable and sustainable land cover. Traditionally, sites have been assessed from field measurements along transects, but these measurements are not necessarily representative of the whole rehabilitation site. ....  read more


Criteria For Functioning River Landscape Units In Mining And Post Mining Landscapes

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Author: Karen White, Darcy Moar, Ross Hardie, Dom Blackham & Rohan Lucas | Alluvium Consulting Australia

The objective of this research has been to further develop an understanding of the requirements for successful design, operation, management and approvals relinquishment for constructed watercourse diversions at mine sites in the Queensland coal mining industry. This has been undertaken through ....  read more


Determination of Criteria for Mining Lease Relinquishment within Central Queensland, Using Terrestrial Vertebrate Fauna as Indicators of Rehabilitation Success

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Author: Lindsay Agnew, Darren Richardson, Andrew Veary | WBM

Where once a primary objective of the mine rehabilitation had been to return the land to grazing, with success measured in terms of projected foliage cover of grasses, more complex and demanding outcomes are now sought. Increasingly, approaches to rehabilitation include, or in many cases, ....  read more


Developing Closure Criteria for River Diversions: An Alternative to Reference Sites

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Author: Melanie Blanchette and Mark Lund | Edith Cowan University

The use of reference sites for establishing closure criteria in areas disturbed by mining activities is accepted by regulators across Australia. However, this approach often creates impossible or unrealistic targets for miners seeking to close rehabilitated lands. In order to increase ....  read more


Development of a Pilot Scale Integrated Forward and Reverse Osmosis System for Mine Water Reuse

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Author: Ramesh Thiruvenkatachari, Michael Cunnington, Shi Su | CSIRO

The forward osmosis (FO) process, also known as direct osmosis, is an emerging membrane technology for water reuse and desalination. In the FO process, water naturally traverses the semi permeable membrane from a lower solute concentration feed solution on one side of the membrane to a higher ....  read more


Development of a Toolbox for Fish Health Assessment in Aquatic Ecosystems Associated with Coal Industries

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Author: Nicole Flint, Evan Chua, Scott Wilson, Sue Vink | Central Queensland University, Macquarie University, University of Queensland

Central Queensland's Bowen Basin contains Australia's most extensive known coal supplies, beneath the river catchments of one of Australia's largest river basins, the Fitzroy Basin. At more than 142,000km2, the Fitzroy Basin is the third largest river basin in Australia ....  read more


Development of ARD Assessment for Coal Process Wastes

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Author: Stuart Miller | Environmental Geochemistry International, Levay and Co Environmental Services, ACeSSS - University of SA

The overall objective of the project was to develop a set of tests for reliably predicting acid rock drainage (ARD) potential of coal rejects and tailings. Standard test methods for predicting their ARD potential are unreliable due to interferences associated with organic matter and mineralogy ....  read more


Development of Australia-Specific PM10 Emission Factors for Coal Mines

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Author: Damon Roddis, Greer Laing, Paul Boulter & Judith Cox | Pacific Environment Operations

Pacific Environment was awarded funding from ACARP for a study to review, update and further develop the emission factors that are used to quantify fugitive dust from open cut coal mining operations in Australia. In the context of the study fugitive dust was characterised as airborne ....  read more


Development of Rehabilitation Completion Criteria for Native Ecosystem Establishment on Coal Mines in the Bowen Basin

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Author: Owen Nichols | Australian Centre for Mining Environmental Research

A significant area of risk associated with mine closure is the question of completion criteria for native ecosystem rehabilitation - will the regulators and the broader community accept defined standards as part of an overall mine closure plan, and agree to lease relinquishment? Both ....  read more


Development of Rehabilitation Completion Criteria for Native Ecosystem Establishment on the Coal Mines in the Hunter Valley

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Author: Owen Hichols | ACMER

A significant area of risk associated with mine closure is the question of completion criteria for native ecosystem rehabilitation ? will the regulators and the broader community accept defined standards as part of an overall mine closure plan, and agree to lease relinquishment? Both ....  read more


Dust in the Hunter Valley - An Evaluation of Concentration Distributions, Meteorological Associations and Community Response

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Author: Nigel Holmes | Holmes Air Sciences

This project investigated the distribution of dust in the Hunter Valley and the relationship between community attitudes to air quality and concentrations of dust to which they are exposed. From anecdotal evidence derived from submissions to Public Inquiry's associated with the opening ....  read more


Effect of Different Stockpiling Operations on Topsoil Characteristics for Rehabilitation in the Hunter Valley

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Author: Nardia Keipert, Carl Grant, John Duggin, Peter Lockwood | University of New England, Alcoa World Alumina Australia

There are currently 17 open cut coal mines in the Hunter Valley that produce 58 Mt/annum of coal for export and domestic use. Mines are legislatively required to rehabilitate land on completion of mining operations. The most common rehabilitation objective in the Hunter Valley is to return ....  read more


Elimination of Wet Tailings Deposits Co-Disposal of Washery Waste

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Author: David Williams, P Morris | University of Queensland

This report summarises the results of ACARP Project  C3008/AMIRA Project Number P401, focussing on the generic aspects of the project. The generic aims of the ACARP component of the project and the mine site specific aims of the AMIRA component of the project were broadly achieved. The ....  read more


Emissions from Blasting in Open Cut Coal Mining

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Author: Stuart Day, Merched Azzi, Robyn Fry, Ed Garland, David Jacyna, Hoda Javanmard, Michael Patterson, Anne Tibbett | CSIRO

Large quantities of ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) explosive are used throughout the open-cut coal mining industry in Australia each year. Individual mines can consume more than 50,000 t of ANFO and related products annually. Apart from dust generated by blasting, under ideal conditions the ....  read more


Enhancing Ecological Values of Coal Pit Lakes With Simple Nutrient Additions and Bankside Vegetation

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Author: Mark Lund, Melanie Blanchette, Clint McCullough | Edith Cowan University

This project builds upon the previous ACARP project (C19018) undertaken by the Mine Water and Environment Research Centre (MiWER) at study sites in Collie (Western Australia). Project C19018 identified that nutrients were limiting algal productivity, water quality improvements, and the ....  read more


Environmental Offsets: Maximizing Ecosystem Services from Biodiversity Conservation

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Author: Magnus Wettle, Damian Barrett, Anthony Almarza, Birte Schoettker | The University of Queensland

Access to land for mining is becoming increasingly difficult for mine establishment and expansion, particularly in areas where the land is fully allocated to food and fibre production, urban settlement, or environmental protection. A key tenet of sustainable development is that production does ....  read more


Erosion and Sediment Control Framework for Queensland Mines

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Author: Robynne Chrystal | The University of Queensland

Water is increasingly recognised as a material risk by mining companies, however corporate water management strategies tend to be heavily focused on access to water for production and processing and do not necessarily capture the other water related risks. Stormwater runoff generated by mine ....  read more


Establishing Ecologically Sustainable Mine Water Release Criteria in Seasonally Flowing Streams

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Author: Sue Vink, Janice Kerr, Alexandra Wolhuter, Ruolin Wu, Alex Henderson & Janina Beyer-Robson | The University of Queensland

Extreme rainfall conditions in the Fitzroy Catchment over an approximately 5 year period between 2007-2012 resulted in accumulation of water on many mine sites. This research investigated hydrological /salinity relationships and ecological processes with the view to better characterise the ....  read more


Establishing Self-Sustaining and Recognisable Ecological Mine Rehabilitation

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Author: Travis Peake, Trish Robinson, Belinda Howe, James Garnham | Umwelt (Australia)

In recent years an increasing interest has been placed on mining operations to rehabilitate their post-mined lands to a standard that achieves a certain level of ecological recognisability and function. In some instances, there have been requirements for rehabilitation to meet the diagnostic ....  read more


Evaluation of Rehabilitation by Stakeholder Panel

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Author: Sue Henderson | The Minserve Group

This project investigated the validity of visual assessment by stakeholders as a method of evaluating land rehabilitation and demonstrating that it has achieved the rehabilitation objectives. Research phases comprised:

  • Review of stakeholder engagement practice,
 ....  read more


Examination of past and present mine rehabilitation to grazing land as a guide to future research

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Author: Justine Cox, Harry Rose, Neil Griffiths | NSW Department of Planning, Industry and Environment

This study follows on from project C23053 which found that cattle weight gain from pastures on ehabilitated mine land compared favourably and in most periods exceeded weight gain from similar cattle on adjacent analogue areas.

This project was aimed at addressing four ....  read more


Final Void Water Quality Enhancement

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Author: Bruce Phillips, Louis Evans, K Sappal, J Fox, J John, M Lund | Curtin University of Technology

Coal has been mined from Collie Basin from the 1890's. The Collie Basin is a tectonic depression in the Yilgarn block with large areas of permian sediments. Following the Second World War, open cut mining was introduced. As a result Collie now has several open pits filled with water  ....  read more


Final Void Water Quality Enhancement - Stage 1

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Author: Bruce Phillips, Louis Evans, Kris Sappal, John Fox, Jacob John, Mark Lund, Ian Piggott | Curtin University of Technology, Griffin Coal Mining, Wesfarmers Coal

Final voids resulting from open cut mining present special problems with respect to rehabilitation. The project aims to develop appropriate low cost, low maintenance, technology for rehabilitating acid water to treat the standing bodies of water now forming lakes in final voids in many ....  read more


Final Void Water Quality Enhancement: Stage II

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Author: Bruce Phillips, Louis Evans, Kris Sappal, John Fox, Jacob John, Mark Lund | Curtin University of Technology

Final voids resulting from open cut mining present special problems with respect to rehabilitation. The project aims to develop appropriate low cost, low maintenance, technology for rehabilitating acid water to treat the standing bodies of water now forming lakes in final voids in many ....  read more


Fine Dust and the Implications for the Coal Industry

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Author: Claire Richardson | Air Noise Environment

Fine particulates are considered to be a health risk to humans and are therefore a potentially significant issue for open cut coal mines. Little data is available in relation to fine particulate concentrations in the vicinity of mines, and stringent new air quality goals were  ....  read more


Fluidised Limestone Reactors for the Remediation of Acidic Drainage Waters

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Author: Louis Evans, Y Tsvetnenko, R Vuthaluru, MO Tade, HB Vathaluru | Curtin University of Technology

The remediation of acidic water resulting from open cut mining in geologies rich in iron pyrites is one of the major environmental issues facing the domestic and international mining industry today. In 2002 the Western Australian State Government joined with coal and tin mining companies based ....  read more


Guidelines for Assessment of Geotechnically Safe and Stable Post-Mining Landforms

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Author: John Simmons, Sue Henderson & Greg Kennedy | Sherwood Geotechnical and Research Services, Henderson Geotech, PSM Consult

The purpose of this project was to develop a guidelines document as a step along the path to a common understanding of the requirements for, and limitations of, assessment of long term geotechnical safety and stability. The intent is to provide a certifiable process for the preparation and ....  read more


High Water Recovery, Low Cost Desalination Using PV-powered Membrane Capacitive Deionisation (mCDI)

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Author: Christopher Miller, Yunyi (Jason) Zhu, Shunzhi Lv, Yuan Wang, John Fletcher & David Waite | University of New South Wales

Capacitive deionization is a robust, energy efficient and cost effective technology for desalination of water with moderate salt content. Including ion exchange membranes in front of the electrodes in a process called membrane capacitive deionisation is a promising recent development. This ....  read more


Hydraulic Connectivity Between Mines and Adjacent River and Groundwater Systems in the Hunter River Valley

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Author: Ling Li, Detlef Bringemeier | University of Queensland, Golder Associates

This project aimed to improve understanding and quantification of the hydraulic connectivity between open cut mines and adjacent river and groundwater systems at the study site in the Hunter River Valley. The investigation focussed on fault and fracture zones that underpin such connectivity by ....  read more


Impacts of Coal Mining on Aquatic Ecosystems in Central Queensland

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Author: Darren Richardson, Ross Bennett | WBM Oceanics Australia


The physical and chemical properties of waters can be modified as it flows over and through a mine site. Changes to the physico-chemical properties of mine waters have the potential to modify off-site aquatic ecosystems, by affecting the structure of ....  read more


Improved Morphometric and Genetic Tools for the Better Identification and Management of Blue Green Algae

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Author: Larelle Fabbro, Catherine Bernard, Paul Monis | Central Queensland University, South Australian Water Corporation

A combination of modern genetics techniques and microscopy were used to identify which species of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) can produce the toxin cylindrospermopsin in water storages used by the coal mining industry. Prior to this research project, the only known toxin producing ....  read more


Improving Particulate Emissions Estimation

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Author: Claire Richardson | Air Noise Environment

The objectives of the research project were to validate existing particulate emission estimation techniques for open area sources at coal mines and to provide local data for related field conditions that affect particulate emission rates.

The impetus for the project was industry ....  read more


Industry Based Rehabilitation and Closure Knowledge Management System: Scoping Study

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Author: Corinne Unger, Alan Woodley, Melina Gillespie, Thomas Baumgartl, Carl Smith, Peter Erskine and Andrew Fletcher | University of Queensland

The Central Queensland Mine Rehabilitation Group (CQMRG) has hosted mine site rehabilitation inspections combined with technical workshops for more than 20 years. It was recognised at CQMRG's anniversary meeting in April 2013 that the vast body of knowledge held by rehabilitation and ....  read more


Integrated Erosion and Landscape Design Package

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Author: Hwat Bing So, K Yatapanage, N Yatapange, GJ Sheridan | University of Queensland

The primary objective of this project was to integrate the development of the laboratory-based erosion methodology and models derived from ACARP projects 1629 and 4011 into a user friendly Integrated Erosion and Landscape Design Package that is readily usable for:  ....  read more


Integrated Forward and Reverse Osmosis System For Mine Water Reuse

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Author: Ramesh Thiruvenkatachari, Michael Cunnington, Mathew Francis, Shi Su | CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering

Mines across Australia face enormous water challenges and desalination options are limited and expensive. Managing the saline water generated during coal mining is becoming an important and costly exercise for the coal industry. Due to the constraints in releasing the saline water, coal mines ....  read more


Invertebrate Fauna as Performance Indicators for Assessing Progress of Rehabilitated Landscapes

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Author: Wayne Houston | Central Queensland University

Restoration can be defined as 'replacement of an ecosystem that was totally destroyed with one of the same kind' and 'the new ecosystem must be entirely reconstructed on a site that was denuded of its vegetation' (Clewell et al. 2005).  Ideally restoration should ....  read more


Live Noise Prediction Method for Australian Conditions

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Author: Peter Sanderson | AECOM Australia

Discussion with various mining clients in the Hunter Valley has made it clear that the traditional approach to noise impact assessment is of limited day to day use on mine sites. It has been indicated that noise from mobile plant is a frequent and recurring cause for complaint in relation to ....  read more


Local Scale Dispersion Modelling to Support ACARP Emission Factors

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Author: Justine Firth, Russ Francis, Tajwar Dar | ERM Australia Pacific Pty Ltd

There remains significant concern in the industry regarding the accuracy of air emissions estimation calculations / emissions inventories that are ultimately used to inform government air quality policy.

In particular, the potential for overestimation of mining related particulate ....  read more


Long Term Erosion & Water Quality Assessment from a Range of Coal Mine Rehabilitation Practices

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Author: Chris Carroll, Les Pink, S Griffiths, A Tucker, P Burger, L Merton, D Cameron, | Department of Natural Resources, Mines and Energy

The initial field study at Curragh assessed runoff, erosion and water quality from rehabilitated land at two scales: field plot (0.01 ha) and contoured catchment (0.58, 0.41 and 0.91 ha). Three contoured catchments with an average slope ....  read more


Maintenance of Geomorphic Processes in Bowen Basin River Diversions

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Author: Ross Hardie, Karen White | Fisher Stewart, ID&A, Earth Technology

The project builds upon knowledge acquired from two past ACARP Projects, being:

  • (C8030) Maintenance of Geomorphic Processes in Bowen Basin River Diversions
  • (C9068) Monitoring Geomorphic Processes in Bowen Basin River Diversions

Location of the ....  read more


Management of Salinity for Closure of Open Cut Coal Mines

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Author: K David, S A Prathapar, Bob Creelman, GR Hancock, Tony Voller | Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources

This project is a scoping study that examines salinity issues facing the mining industry in the Hunter Region that is challenged with mining in a saline environment associated with Permian geological sediments and with the mining process increasing the potential mobilisation of salt.

 ....  read more


Management of Waste Open Gear Lube in the Coal Mining Industry

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Author: Michael Vincent | University of Queensland, CMLR

The disposal of waste open-gear lubricants and other dragline greases and oils generated by the coal mining industry has proved to be an expensive and labour intensive practice. This is in the main due to the thick, tacky nature of the long-chained hydrocarbons ....  read more


Management of Waste Tyres in the Mining Industry

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Author: Matt Corbett | CMLR, University of Queensland

The disposal of waste tyres from mining machinery in Australia remains problematic.  Waste off-the-road tyres from mining operations have generally been buried in landfill or stockpiled in a registered waste area on site. Their size, construction and invariably remote location make their ....  read more


Managing DIG: Ensuring Currency in an Invaluable Resource

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Author: David Mulligan | The University of Queensland

It has regularly been identified that a large body of work covering many areas of the rehabilitation of coal mines has been undertaken, resulting in many reports and other forms of reference material. Given the time, resources and financial investment put into this diverse range of work, it is ....  read more


Managing Environmental Risks Effectively Post-rehabilitation for all Stakeholders: Legal Options for Coal Miners, Landholders and Governments to Manage Post-coal Mining Rehabilitation and Land Use

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Author: Leanne Bowie and Jonathan Fulcher | The University of Queensland

Mining is a temporary land use; normal mining investment is made on the legal basis that tenements can be relinquished after resource extraction and rehabilitation is complete. If that relinquishment can be effected with a post-mining land use that generates income, risks of relinquishment for ....  read more


Managing Microorganisms to Improve Mine Site Rehabilitation Success

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Author: Howard G Wildman | Microbial Management Systems

One of the major challenges to rehabilitating land that has been disturbed by mining is the re-establishment of a self-sustaining vegetative cover.  Restoration of acceptable vegetative cover on reclaimed mine lands can be difficult because post-mining soils often have a less developed ....  read more


Managing Mine Water Under Extreme Climate Variability

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Author: Damian Barrett, Yun Chen, Lei Gao, Mingwei Zhou, Luigi Renzullo, Rui Liu and Irina Emelyanova | CSIRO

This report describes the technologies for exploring management strategies, assessing risk and addressing the challenges of both excess and insufficient water on mine sites under extreme climate variability. This is achieved through the use of a climate-driven, hierarchical system model ....  read more


Meteorological Modelling For The Hunter Valley

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Author: N Holmes, S Lakmaker | Holmes Air Sciences

Blast overpressure levels experienced from operations on open cut mines depend on many factors including the design of the blast, the distance from the blast to the receiver and the prevailing atmospheric conditions.  The way in which temperature and wind vary along the path through which ....  read more


Microclimate Re-vegetation Monitoring

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Author: Christian Richter, Brano Kusy, John Neldner, Michael Ngugi, Darren Moore | CSIRO, DSITIA

Most mine sites within Australia have specific rehabilitation objectives in order to return the landscape to an acceptable state after the mine operations cease. In addition to these formal objectives set out by regulators, community expectations for satisfactory rehabilitation are very ....  read more


Mine Rehabilitation and Closure Knowledge Management WIKI: MRC-WIKI

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Author: Corinne Unger, Thomas Baumgartl, Carol Bond, Vanessa Glenn and Paul Sabourenkov | University of Queensland

This research project was undertaken over two years following completion of a scoping study. The scoping study provided guidance on a number of knowledge management platforms and decision tools for sharing rehabilitation and closure knowledge as well as providing capacity for discussion forums. ....  read more


Mine Water Quality - Spread of Blue-Green Algae

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Author: Larelle Fabbro, L Unwin, LJ Barnett, L Young, N Orr | Central Qld University

This project was undertaken  to address improvement in water quality of pit and recycled mine waters in the Bowen Basin and included a detailed study of issues related to the toxicity and management of blue-green algae. The work was presented in three sections.

PART A - ....  read more


Mobile Sampling Of Dust Emissions From Unsealed Roads

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Author: Judith Cox | Pacific Environment Limited

Dust from unsealed roads has the potential to have a detrimental impact on local ambient air quality, create a road safety hazard by reducing visibility and result in higher vehicle operating costs, due to dust penetrating the engine and other moving components resulting in increased rates of ....  read more


Modelling Fine-Particulate Dispersion over Short Time Spans from Open Cut Mining Activity

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Author: Howard Bridgman, D Cohen, M Pickett | University of Newcastle, TUNRA, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation,

Emissions of dust, or particulate matter, into the atmosphere from various sources in the Australian environment are of considerable interest for health, environmental and aesthetic reasons. Particulate matter occurs in the atmosphere from two processes: direct release from a variety of ....  read more


Modelling The Water, Energy And Economic Nexus

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Author: Alan Woodley, Greg Keir, Estelle Roux, Damian Barrett, Jackson White, Sue Vink | The University of Queensland

The mining industry faces three long term strategic risks in relation to its water and energy use: 1) securing enough water and energy to meet increased production; 2) reducing water use, energy consumption and emissions due to social, environmental and economic pressures; and 3) understanding ....  read more


Monitoring Geomorphic Processes in Bowen Basin River Diversions

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Author: Ross Hardie, Karen White | Fisher Stewart, ID&A, Earth Technology

The project is combined with C8030, please see here for the abstract ....  read more


Monitoring of Temperature and Oxygen Profiles in Self Heating Spoil Piles

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Author: John Carras, J Bus, O Roberts, F Fzemes | CSIRO Energy Technology

The long-term behaviour of spoil piles subject to spontaneous combustion has been evaluated at three hunter valley mines over an 18 month period. Spontaneous combustion has emerged in recent years as a significant issue in the Muswellbrook region of the Hunter Valley.  Spontaneous ....  read more


Native Understorey Species Regeneration at NSW Coal Mines

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Author: Melina Gillespie, Mary-Anne Murray, David Mulligan, Sean Bellairs | University of Queensland, Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation

Beyond the stage of reshaping spoil piles and other mine waste dumps to create landscapes that will ensure environmentally acceptable erosion and water quality control, one of the ....  read more


Native Understorey Species Regeneration at NSW Coal Mines

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Author: Melina Gillespie, David Mulligan, K Baker | CMLR, University of Queensland

Long-term research has provided valuable data on the best species selection and conditions for native understorey species regeneration in NSW coal mines.  NSW mining lease conditions require rehabilitation to at least the pre-mining Rural Land Capability and, for the Hunter Valley region, ....  read more


Northern Bowen Basin Water and Salt Management Practices

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Author: Chris Moran, Claire Cote, James McIntosh, Chris Hedemann, Nicole Silverster | University of Queensland

Water and salt management over the Northern Bowen Basin was examined through site visits, workshops, one-on-one interviews and site water balance reports.  An organising framework for site water management was identified.  A framework was developed which includes a conceptual ....  read more


NOx Emissions from Blasting in Open Cut Coal Mining in the Hunter Valley

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Author: Moetaz Attalla, Stuart Day, Tony Lange, William Lilley, Scott Morgan | CSIRO Energy Technology

The Australian coal mining industry, as with other industries, is coming under greater constraints with respect to their environmental impacts. Emissions of fume forming acid gases such as NOx and SOx to the atmosphere have been regulated for many years as a result of recent advances ....  read more


Open Path Boundary Monitoring for Operational Dust Control

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Author: Rami Hashmonay, Damon Roddis, Madeleine Lewis, Jordan Eastwood | Environmental Resources Management Australia Pacific

In early 2017project C25029 was successfully completed to investigate the use of LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) for operational dust control at open cut coal mining operations.  The objective of this work was to investigate suitable options and implement a real time monitoring method ....  read more


Overcoming Limitations to Bulk Organic Bioremediation of Acid Coal Mine Lakes

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Author: Naresh Kumar, Clint McCullough, Mark Lund | Edith Cowan University

This project is further development of technology from an earlier ACARP project (C28074) which involved sulphate reduction based bioremediation for in situ treatment of acidic pit lakes arising from open cut coal mining operations.

In this previous study, encouraging responses of ....  read more


Passive Salt Governor - PSG

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Author: Sue Vink, Chris Moran, Vinitha Naidu | Centre for Water in the Minerals Industry, Sustainable Minerals Institute, University of Queensland

A technique was developed that could be used on mine sites to quantify salt uptake and release from coal during processing.  Tests were conducted on coals from 14 sites from the Bowen Basin, Hunter Valley and Illawarra. Results showed that in general salt uptake and release was a linear ....  read more


PM2.5 Particulate Emission Rates For Open Cut Coal Mines

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Author: Claire Richardson, Samuel Putland and Brett Verran | Air Noise Environment

The objective of this project was to determine particulate emission rates for the PM2.5 dust fraction for a range of open cut mining activities in Australia.


The project methodology was based on previous research completed in the Hunter Valley. This methodology was modified ....  read more


PM2.5 Particulate Emission Rates From Mining Operations

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Author: Claire Richardson | Air Noise Environment

The objective of this project was to determine particulate emission rates for the PM2.5 dust fraction for a range of open cut mining activities.


The project methodology was based on previous research completed in the Hunter Valley. This methodology was modified to utilise ....  read more


Post Mining Landscape Parameters for Erosion and Water Quality Control (including CD workbook)

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Author: Hwat Bing-So, Gary Sheridan, Rob Loch, Chris Carroll, G Willgoose | University of Queensland

This report covers the achievements of two successive ACARP projects, C1629 (1992-1994), and C4011 (1995-1997), entitled 'Postmining Landscape Parameters for Erosion and Water ....  read more


Preconditioning Plants to Withstand Flooding on a Tailings Dam

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Author: Carmen Castor, Mike Cole, Nathan Setz and Ben Tolosa | CSER Research

Repeated flooding of the tailings dam at Mangoola mine under project C27009 led us to apply for additional funding to investigate how we could better produce flood adapted plants for the long term dewatering of the dam. The need to develop procedures to aid adaptation and survival of plants ....  read more


Prediction of Long Term Erosion at Pit Walls

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Author: Sue Henderson | Henderson Geotech

The objective of this project was to provide a basis for estimating long term erosion around excavated pit walls in order to assess its effect on final void stability and footprint. The research followed two main lines of investigation:

  • Collation of information about existing pit
 ....  read more


Prediction of Long-term Salt Generation from Coal Spoils

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Author: Mansour Edraki, Neil McIntyre, Thomas Baumgartl and Melinda Hilton | University of Queensland

The release of salts from spoil piles has the potential to affect surface and groundwater quality particularly the quality of water in final voids. Current hydro-geochemical salt balance models either assume that the total amount of inherent salts in spoils will be released over time or often ....  read more


Preparing A Mine For Both Drought And Flood - A Vulnerability And Adaptive Capacity Study

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Author: Jane Hodgkinson, Micaela Grigorescu, Habib Alehossein | CSIRO

This report describes a method developed to assess a mine's vulnerability to extreme weather conditions and its adaptation options and capacity to adapt in order to reduce vulnerability. This method has been named CRATER (Climate Related Adaptation from Terrain Evaluation Results).

 ....  read more


Quantification, Speciation And Morphology Of Respirable Silica In The Vicinity Of Open Cut Coal Mines In The Hunter Valley, NSW

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Author: Anthony Morrison, Peter Nelson | Macquarie University

The inhalation of air containing elevated levels of crystalline silica is known to cause pneumoconiositic reactions (silicosis) in the lung and possibly cancers. The existence of silicosis has been known since ancient times in industrial occupations which resulted in the generation of excessive ....  read more


Quantifying Coal Dust in Urban Samples

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Author: Graham O’Brien, Karryn Warren, Silvie Koval, Greg Krahenbuhl, David Wainwright | CSIRO & Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation, Qld Government

The objectives of this project were to undertake scientifically rigorous dust studies around coal ports to provide quantitative particle size and abundance information for coal and other particulates in these samples which would also be accepted by the general community. Coal dust is an issue ....  read more


Quantifying recharge to groundwater systems in the NSW coalfields (Sydney, Gunnedah and Gloucester basins)

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Author: Andy Wilkins, Russell Crosbie, Matthias Raiber, Warrick Dawes, Tristan Louth-Robins, Lei Gao | CSIRO

The purpose of this project was to estimate the rate of diffuse recharge via rainfall to groundwater systems.  The rate of recharge (usually measured in mm/year) is a key ingredient to mines' environmental impact assessments.

Water is added to groundwater systems by ....  read more


Quantitative Approach To Improving The Business Of Biodiversity Investment

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Author: Damian Barrett, Laura Sonter, Anthony Almarza, Daniel Franks, Chris Moran, Tamar Cohen and Chris Hedemann | The University of Queensland

Biodiversity is defined as the variety of all life on earth. This definition includes the diversity and range of fundamental ecosystem functions, such as carbon, water and nutrient cycling in vegetation and soils. Ecosystem functions provide a range of important ecosystem goods and services, ....  read more


Quantitative Tool for Managing Acid Mine Drainage and Salinity

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Author: Mihai Borsaru, C Smith, S fraser, A Rojc | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

The work described in this report was carried out by CSIRO Exploration & Mining, QCAT Laboratory in Brisbane. The objectives of the project were:

  • To determine the accuracy of the Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) logging technique for the measurement
 ....  read more


Real Time Mine Specific Upper Air Data For Use In The Management of Mine Noise, Dust, Blast Fume and Overpressure

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Author: Aleks Todoroski | Todoroski Air Sciences

The uptake of real-time tools to manage environmental effects from the mining industry is increasing and there is a demand for reliable real-time upper air meteorological data for these tools to improve their accuracy and relevance to daily operations.

Upper air data are important as ....  read more


Real-time Monitoring and Prediction of Open Cut Blast Fumes

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Author: Darren Moore, Mark Hibberd, Dennis Frousheger & Stephen Brosnan | CSIRO

This project successfully developed and demonstrated a complete system to monitor and predict in real time the ground level concentrations of blast fume in and around open cut coal mines. This report describes the system and the outcomes of five trials of the system during blasts at the Meandu ....  read more


Reducing Analytical and Water Quality Monitoring Costs using Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT) Technique

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Author: Trang Huynh and Sue Vink | The University of Queensland

Release of mine water into streams in the Fitzroy catchment to remove surplus water accumulated during extreme wet seasons raised concerns about the impacts of releases on aquatic biota. The regulator has subsequently imposed stringent monitoring conditions that include a suite of 17 metals and ....  read more


Reducing Uncertainty in Long Term Void Water Quality Predictions for Final Void Management

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Author: Sue Vink | The University of Queensland

The aim of this project was to generate new data and undertake predictive water quality modelling to assist the closure of final voids as water bodies. The research reviewed available pit lake data to ascertain the range of water quality conditions currently existing in water filled voids on ....  read more


Rehabilitation of Dispersive Tertiary Spoil in the Bowen Basin

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Author: Sue Henderson | The Minserve Group

The aim of this project was to evaluate the performance of current rehabilitation techniques on dispersive Tertiary spoil. Studies included:

  • Examination of the fundamental mechanisms of dispersion-related erosion;
  • Sampling and testing of corresponding
 ....  read more


Rehabilitation of Highwalls

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Author: Peter Baker | PW Baker and Associates

As open-cut coal mines in the Bowen Basin mature, closure planning for final voids will become of paramount importance. Coal mining companies across Queensland currently plan a range of approaches in dealing with final highwalls ranging from a minimalist fencing through to comprehensive ....  read more


Rehabilitation of Open Cut Coal Mines Using Native Grasses: Management Guidelines

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Author: Charles Huxtable | Hunter Valley Environment Group, Department of Land and Water Conservation

A two year project was undertaken to develop practical management techniques and guidelines for the use of native grasses in open cut coal mine rehabilitation in the Hunter Valley. The project aimed to enhance and expand on the findings of a preceding three year project which had  ....  read more


Rehabilitation of Open Cut Mines Using Native Pasture Species

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Author: Charles Huxtable | Department of Conservation and Land Management

It is a requirement of law that coal mining companies in the Hunter Valley rehabilitate mined land to a standard at least equal to that existing prior to mining activities. In the Hunter Valley most areas prior to mining consist of Class IV, V and VI agricultural land, as defined by the Soil ....  read more


Rehabilitation of Spontaneous Combustion - Prone Spoil Piles

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Author: A Saghafi, J Cheng, C Perrier, John Carras, Clive Roberts | Clive Roberts Consulting, CSIRO Energy Technology, ACIRL

The control of spontaneous combustion in spoil piles is an area of concern for a number of open-cut coal mines. Spontaneous combustion in spoil occurs when carbonaceous waste materials are exposed to the air. In large piles, the relatively high voidage (20-40%) within the pile may allow ....  read more


Risk Assessment Tools To Support End-Use Decisions For Mined Land Of The Bowen Basin

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Author: Bob Maczkowiack, Carl Smith, Peter Erskine, David Mulligan | The University of Queensland

Several open-cut mines in the Bowen basin are at or near the end of their operational lives. When mining companies seek regulatory 'sign-off' for these sites, or to obtain certification of rehabilitation that has been completed progressively, they are required among other things to ....  read more


Risk Management Strategies for the Surrender of Open Cut Dragline Spoil Pile Areas

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Author: David Williams | University of Queensland

Forestry and native habitat are more sustainable post-mining land uses for central Queensland mines than grazing or cropping.  The emerging government vision is driven by the principles of ecological sustainable development and is enshrined in the Environmental Protection Act, which ....  read more


Scale Up Leaching Tests for Spoil Salinity Predictions

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Author: Mansour Edraki, Neil McIntyre and Karan Rishabhkumar Jain | University of Queensland

The release of salts from spoil piles can potentially affect surface and groundwater quality and the quality of water in final voids. Current hydrogeochemical salt balance models often assume that the total amount of inherent salts in spoils will be released over time or predict that water ....  read more


Selection of Native Species to Develop Natural Ecosystems on Open Cut Coal Mines in the Central Queensland Region

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Author: Bevan Emmerton, James Elsol, Gil Fletcher | Land Reclamation Services

Field examination of plant communities and their associated soils in Western and Central Queensland has provided a range of approximately 60 potentially suitable species for trial and incorporation into rehabilitation ....  read more


Soil Organic Matter and Green Carbon in Rehabilitation:Their Role in the Carbon Balance

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Author: Thomas Baumgartl | University of Queensland

Quantifying carbon fluxes in reclaimed mining environments can define the success of rehabilitation. The carbon content is often used as a surrogate to describe the status of soil health. Organic carbon in soils contributes to nutrient storage and exchange for plant growth, but also improves ....  read more


Sound Propagation Model Development and Validation

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Author: Neil Pennington | Sound Research Ventures

Noise modelling is an evolving science dependant on, and constrained by, a number of variable and complex parameters. This project sought to review the existing commercially available engineering noise propagation models, used within the mining industry, for rigour and accuracy. This ....  read more


Specialist Woody Species for Bowen Basin Coal Mine Rehabilitation and Native Ecosystem Reestablishment

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Author: James Elsol, Bevan Emmerton | J and J Elsol, BR Emmerton

Original project objectives were:

Research the nature of successful brigalow (Acacia harpophylla) and belah (Casuarina cristata) establishment from seed and tubestock in Bowen Basin rehabilitation communities, including review of brigalow biology as ....  read more


Specification of Overburden for Use as Spoil Cover

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Author: Sue Henderson | The Minserve Group, Geotechnical Consulting Services, Land Reclamation Services

This project searched for links between overburden data obtained during feasibility studies and characteristics of the subsequent spoil that would make it suitable as a cover layer over other spoil with properties hostile to rehabilitation. The study included:

  • Definition of
 ....  read more


Stage One: Integrating Economic, Social and Biophysical Factors to Assess Risks of Grazing as a Final End Use of Rehabilitated Mine Land in Central Qld Stage Two: A Risk Assessment Model for the Custodial Transfer of Mined Land to Grazing

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Author: Bob Maczkowiack, Geoff Slaughter, David Mulligan | The University of Queensland


The Queensland state regulator and the mining companies that operate open-cut coal mines in central Queensland would both like to see domains of successfully rehabilitated mine land formally certified as having been returned to a sustainable end use acceptable to ....  read more


Stygofauna in Australian Groundwater Systems: Extent of Knowledge

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Author: Grant Hose, Janardhanan Sreekanth, Olga Barron and Carmel Pollino | CSIRO, Macquarie University

The extraction of coal and gas from coal seams often intersects aquifers with the potential consequence of changing the volume, quality, pressure and movement of groundwater. While such hydrological changes are well understood and can be modelled relatively accurately, the effects of these ....  read more


Sustainability Indicators for Coal Mine Rehabilitation

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Author: Chris Carroll, Andrew Tucker, L Merton, P Burger, L Pink | Department of Natural Resources and Mines

A seminal study has provided the mining industry, regulators and the community with a true picture of what is needed to produce successful rehabilitation on Queensland mine sites.  Replacing inappropriate agricultural research methods with techniques relevant to mining , highly regarded ....  read more


Sustainable Grazing on Rehabilitated Lands in the Bowen Basin - Stages 1 and 2

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Author: Andrew Grigg, Ben Mullen, Hwat Bing So, Max Shelton, S Bisrat, P Horn, K Yatapange | CMLR, University of Queensland

Grazing cattle defoliate a pasture through direct consumption, and through trampling as they move around. If grazing pressure is low, then the pasture is able to recover with no loss in long-term yields or ground cover. Light grazing may even stimulate the pasture and improve productivity ....  read more


Sustainable Landscape Design for Coal Mine Rehabilitation

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Author: Rob Loch | Landloch Pty Ltd

Until recently, successful mine site rehabilitation in the NSW Coalfields has focused on introduced pasture with intermittent tree lots. With changes in community expectations, greater emphasis has been placed upon landforms and vegetation that are relatively "natural" in appearance and ....  read more


Sustainable Management of Plantations for Rehabilitation, Carbon and Wood

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Author: Ashley Webb, Georgina Kelly, Nick Cameron | NSW Department of Primary Industries

A series of plantation forest trials were established in the late 1990s and early 2000s in the Upper Hunter coalfields to investigate the potential commercial viability of growing plantation forests as an alternative post-mining industry - either for wood products or carbon offsets. Following ....  read more


Tailings Revegetation Project Through “The Vegetative Water Pump”

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Author: Mike Cole, Carmen Castor, Nathan Setz and Ben Tolosa | CSER Research

This project aimed to greatly reduce the water trapped below the crust of tailings dams by developing a 'Vegetative Water Pump'. The aim was to select plant species mostly natural to the area of the dam to penetrate the crust and pump the water out increasing the solids density in the ....  read more


Testing the Resilience of Mine Site Rehabilitation

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Author: Phill McKenna, Natasha Ufer, Peter Erskine, Vanessa Glenn, David Doley and Vinod Nath | University of Queensland

This project assessed four controlled and five uncontrolled fires that occurred in rehabilitated and unmined areas in central and southern Queensland between 2015 and 2020. The aim was to improve the understanding of fire behaviour, fire risk and determine the trends in rehabilitation recovery ....  read more


The Development of a Salinity Plugin for the Source Modelling Framework

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Author: Tony Weber, Damion Cavanagh, Chris Vos, Joel Rahman | BMT WBM

High salinity in freshwater catchments impacts upon freshwater organisms and ecosystem health, as well as other environmental values such as suitability for drinking water, livestock watering and crop rotation. How saline mine water releases relate to broader catchment salinity issues within ....  read more


The Queensland & New South Wales Coal Mine Rehabilitation Research Database: A Strategy For Improvement and Enhancement

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Author: M Gillespie, B West | The University of Queensland


The outcomes for projects C19030, C15045 and C12044 have been UPDATED and are available at C22026.



 ....  read more


Tool to Assess Mining Impacts on River Condition

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Author: Claire Sellens | Central Queensland University

The management of mining impacts on rivers and other aquatic ecosystems at both a local and regional scale is a key priority for the mining industry in order to improve the industry's ability to manage environmental issues. The mining industry needs to be able to accurately monitor and ....  read more


Tools For The Assessment Of Erosion Risk And Associated Sediment And Water Discharges On The Receiving Environment

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Author: Hwat-Bing So, Bofu Yu, Gunnar Kirchhof, Dipak Paudyal & A. Khalifa | Griffith University

The project aimed to develop a user friendly catchment/landscape based erosion model, based on the existing hillslope model MINErosion 3.01; a standalone database of soil and spoil physical and chemical properties that can be used with the erosion model as well as for other purposes and a ....  read more


Topsoil Deficits in Site Rehabilitation Accelerated Transformation of Spoils to Functional Soils

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Author: Guilherme da Silva, Samadhi Gunathunga, Paul Evans, Peter Erskine, Emma Gagen and Gordon Southam | The University of Queensland

The incorporation of commercial biological amendments (compost, worm juice and dried manure) and topsoil at a Bowen Basin coal mine site over a 12 month field experiment increased early microbial enzyme activity (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, urease, phosphatases) compared to gypsum + ....  read more


Topsoil Substitutes and Sustainability of Reconstructed Native Forest in the Hunter Valley

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Author: Mike Cole, Yvonne Nussbaumer, Camen Caster, Nigel Fisher | University of Newcastle

Three primary objectives were set for this project, these are:

  • To identify the best growth media for the establishment of native forest communities in spoil and pasture soil and to test secondary and tertiary treatments such as inoculation with soil microbes.
 ....  read more


Towards closure of potentially saline pit lakes: understanding biophysical processes for condition assessment and remediation options

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Author: Mark Lund, Melanie Blanchette | Edith Cowan University

This project aimed to conduct baseline monitoring and research on a series of saline pit lakes across the Bowen Basin and Hunter Valley with a focus on biodiversity. As a potential rehabilitation technique, an on-site tank experiment was conducted to determine the effect of organic matter ....  read more


Treating Acidity in Coal Pit Lakes Using Sewage and Green Waste: Microcosm and Field Scale Trials at Collinsville Coal Project (Queensland)

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Author: Clint McCullough, Mark Lund, Joel May | Edith Cowan University, Xstrata Coal Qld

This research project involved, collaboration and technology transfer from research in Collie (Western Australia) to Collinsville (Queensland).   Coal mine lakes represent a potentially valuable resource to both the environment and the community in inland Australia, if the water ....  read more


Understanding Leading Practice in Water Management

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Author: C Cote, C Moran, E Gozzard, A Craven, J Shih | Centre for Water in the Minerals Industry, Sustainable Minerals Institute, The University of Queensland

This study was undertaken in the context of increased scrutiny over sustainability of the coal mining industry, particularly as it relates to water management. There are increasing expectations for a broader range of standards to be met; these standards are expressed by using the concept of ....  read more


Understanding the Physical and Detonation Characteristics of Bulk Explosives to Minimise Post Blast Fume Generation in Deep Hole, Soft Ground and Wet Conditions

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Author: Lee Julian, Ewan Sellers, Sarma Kanchibotla, Anand Musunuri, Gary Cavanough, Italo Onederra | Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre

Post blast fume has a pungent, acrid odour, features strong colours ranging from yellow to deep red or purples, and is sufficiently toxic to cause serious personal injury.  Project C20016, A method to assess and minimise the potential for fume generation from blasting was undertaken ....  read more


Use And Water Quality Remediation Of Acidic Coal Pit Lakes By Adjacent Aquaculture

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Author: Naresh Kumar, Clint McCullough, Mark Lund | Edith Cowan University

This ACARP funded project builds on the outcomes of earlier ACARP funded projects conducted in the Collie region by the authors to understand the acidic pit lakes physico-chemical and biological processes and use the knowledge to remediate pit lakes.


The present project was ....  read more


Use of Meteorological Models to Predict Dust Risk Indices for Mining Areas in the Hunter Valley

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Author: Nigel Holmes | NH2 Dispersion Sciences

The first part of the study investigates the use of meteorological forecast models (the MM5 model) to provide short term (24 to 36 hour) predictions of a relative dust risk index (see later).  The study area covers those parts of the Hunter Valley where open cut mining takes place. ....  read more


Use of Satellite Imagery for the Assessment of Rehabilitated Land in Central Queensland

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Author: Mark Evans | Esys Consulting

Each mine in Queensland has or will negotiate criteria relating to successful revegetation with regulatory authorities and, prior to lease surrender will be required to demonstrate that such criteria have or are likely to be met. Revegetation after open cut coal mining may be ....  read more


Use of Soil Amendments to Maximise Wood and Carbon Values from Trees Planted on Overburden and Buffe

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Author: Georgina Kelly | NSW Department of Primary Industries

Since the Kyoto Protocol was first drafted in 1997, many companies have started to investigate the options available to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and address the threat of climate change. One popular emission reduction strategy involves the establishment of tree plantations to ....  read more


User driven refinement of decision support tools to inform final mined landform outcomes

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Author: Glenn Dale, Laura McCallum, Ben Silverwood & Conor Bingham, John Bennett, Afshin Ghahramani, Aram Ali & Stirling Robertson | Verterra Ecological Engineering, University of Southern Queensland

The objective of this project was to facilitate the transfer of project C24033 dispersive mine spoil rehabilitation outputs into practice. This included extending the application of the decision support tools to all mined land rehabilitation, and refinement of the package of decision support ....  read more


Using an Ecotoxicological Approach to Validate the DGT Technique for the Measurement of Bioavailable Metal Concentrations

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Author: Trang Huynh, Ceiwen Peace, Shelley Templemen, Dustin Hobbs, Andrew Harford, Sue Vink, Ross Smith | Hydrobiology Qld, Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist , James Cook University & University of Queensland

This project builds on the opportunity identified through Project C23037, which showed that the Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT) technique may be appropriate for assessing bioavailable metal concentrations in streams of the Fitzroy River Basin (FRB). The Project C23037 conducted a trial ....  read more


Utilisation of High Resolution Infrared Imagery for the Enhanced Monitoring of Revegetation in Open-Cut Mine Site Rehabilitation

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Author: Mark Freeburn, Richard Mather | AAM Hatch, Buckinghamshire New University, U.K.

The purpose of project work was to investigate colour and infrared aerial imaging for monitoring the revegetation of coal mining sites. Project duration (2006-2010) coincided with a period when wet emulsion aerial survey was replaced with direct digital capture of imagery and the automated ....  read more


Verification of the Vertical Distribution of Dust From Mining Activities

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Author: Darlene Heuff | Advanced Environmental Dynamics

Advanced Environmental Dynamics has undertaken a two year project involving a significant field campaign complemented by a dust dispersion model validation component. The primary objective of this project was to give both the mining industry and regulators increased confidence in the results ....  read more


Vol 1. Decommissioning Coal Tailings Dams in the Bowen Basin and Hunter Valley. Vol 2. The Potential for Capping to affect Water Movement in Coal Rejects in the Bowen Basin and Hunter Valley

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Author: Sue Henderson, M Edraki, J Morrell, L Crawford | The Minserve Group, Geotech Research, CMLR, University of Queensland

This report presents the outcomes of an extension of ACARP Project C9030 to investigate Capping of Coal Coarse Rejects. The aim of the research was to provide guidance on design of capping for coarse rejects based on understanding the effect of capping material and thickness on the fate ....  read more


Vol 1: The Self Heating of Spoil Piles : A Field Trial of Fly-Ash Grouting and an Assessment of Cover Materials. Vol 2: Guide to the Recognition, Management and Prevention of Spoil Pile Self-Heating

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Author: John Carras, A Maitra, OC Roberts, Abou Saghafi, F Szemes, David Haneman, Murray Phillips | CSIRO Energy Technology, ACIRL, IMEC Independent Mining & Equipment Consultants, Earth Technology

This report presents the results of an ACARP funded study carried out by Coal Processing Consultants (an ACIRL and CSIRO Division of Coal and Energy Technology joint venture) on aspects of spoil pile self heating. The ....  read more


Water Management in the Coal Industry: Scoping Study

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Author: David Fuller, David Marston | URS Australia

The black coal industry in Australia uses and manages large quantities of water in all stages of the winning and processing of coal, and in the management and rehabilitation of mine sites. The industry commissioned this scoping study to define the water management issues facing the ....  read more


Water Quality and Discharge Prediction for Final Void and Spoil Catchments

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Author: Clem Hill, Deryk Forster, Brad Tite, Lew Isaacs | PPK Environment & Infrastructure

The aim of this project was to develop a practical methodology, based on computer modelling and field monitoring, for predicting the hydrology and water quality of final spoil-void systems, primarily for use in on-site planning of final spoil-void systems and in gaining regulatory ....  read more



Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C34019Longwall Bretby Cable Handling Monitoring With Fibre Optics

This project examined the potential of using fibre optic sensing tec...

C28028The Inclusion Of High Interest Native Plants In Mine Site Restoration Programs: Propagation, Translocation And Field Re-Introduction

This report synthesises over 10 years of ex situ and in si...

C27049Mine Machine Radar Sensor Integration

The aim of this project was to develop an integrated radar sensor an...


Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C34029Validation Of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) As A Rapidly Deployable Field Technology To Estimate Coal Quality

Rapid evaluation of a coal resource by in-situ characterisation dow...

C34028Guidelines For Assessment Of Geotechnically Safe And Stable Post-Mining Landforms

The purpose of this project was to develop a guidelines document as ...

C34016Elements In Coal – A Start-To-End Analysis

This project explores the fate and concentration potential of critical e...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C26016Determining The Benefits Of Online Thickener Underflow Rheology Measurements

The aim of this project is to determine how useful the rheology meas...

C33056Modelling And Control Of Classifying Cyclones

Hydrocyclones are one of the key technologies for the classification...

C28056Surface Alloying Of Centrifuge Baskets And Sieve Bends Screen Surfaces To Increase The Service Lifetime

The main objective of this project was to improve the wear resistanc...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C33066Washability And Distribution Of Sulfur And Trace Elements For Different Size And Density Fractions Of Raw Coals

Based on the hypothesis that the levels of sulfur and other toxic tr...

C34060In-Situ Investigation Of Coke Structure Formation Under Stamp Charged Coking Conditions

Stamp charged cokemaking has emerged as an effective technique to im...

C34062Improving The Classification Of Microstructure Distribution In Coke CT Images Using Deep Learning And Lineal Path Calculations

This project builds on a number of earlier projects that have helped...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C28076Selective Absorption Of Methane By Ionic Liquids (SAMIL)

This third and final stage of this project was the culmination of a ...

C29069Low-Cost Catalyst Materials For Effective VAM Catalytic Oxidation

Application of ventilation air methane (VAM) thermal oxidiser requir...

C23052Novel Stone Dust Looping Process For Ventilation Air Methane Abatement

This multi‐phase project is concerned with the mitigation of m...

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community


National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook