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Our underground health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives include strengthening ventilation and gas management technology, minimising risks from fires and explosions, advancing emergency response technologies, reducing operating costs and improving reliability of subsidence predictions.

Strata Control and Windblasts (82 Reports)

3D Stress Effects of Longwall Caving as Revealed by Microseismic Monitoring

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Author: Peter Hatherly, Winton Gale, Terry Medhurst, Andrew King, Stuart Craig, Brett Poulsen, Xun Luo | CSIRO Exploration & Mining, SCT Operations, Australian Mining Consultants

The use of microseismic monitoring to resolve caving issues and to provide warning of weightings, windblasts and other caving related problems has been demonstrated by a number of ACARP and industry funded projects. In this, the latest project, the direct association between microseismic ....  read more


ACARP Scholarship - A Method for the Design of Longwall Gateroad Roof Support

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Author: Bill Lawrence | Geowork Engineering

A longwall gateroad roof support design method for roadway development and panel extraction is demonstrated. It is a hybrid numerical and empirical method called Gateroad Roof Support Model (GRSM), where specification of roof support comes from charts or equations. GRSM defines suggested roof ....  read more


Anchorage and Failure Mechanisms of Fully Encapsulated Rockbolts: Stage 2

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Author: Paul Hagan, S Weckert | University of NSW

The results of this second stage project have contributed to the state of knowledge and further understanding of the mechanics of fully encapsulated or full column rockbolts (FERB). The project included several investigations intended to improve current rockbolting practices in the field ....  read more


Application of 50 to 60 Tonne Cable Pre-Loads to Roof Control in Difficult Ground Conditions

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Author: David Hill | Strata Engineering (Australia)

This project has successfully met all aspects of the following original objective: "to establish a package of existing technology items that allows the installation and pre-loading of cable tendons in the range of 50 to 60 tonnes and to conduct installation trials and basic field evaluations in ....  read more


Assessment of Convergence Based Roof Support Design For Longwall Abutment Loads

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C24015 01/02/2019
Author: Terry Medhurst | PDR Engineers

The aim of Stage two of project C24015 was to develop a roof support design approach that takes account of differing roof conditions, effect of support type and stiffness that can be used for mine design and in the strata management process. An analytical framework was developed for roadway ....  read more


Assessment of Longwall Mining Induced Connective Fracturing

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Author: Deepak Adhikary, Manoj Khanal, Andy Wilkins, Brett Poulsen | CSIRO

In underground mines the mining induced permeability change in the overburden is the single most important factor that impacts water and gas flow. Empirical estimates of mining induced permeability change are inaccurate. This project aimed to quantify the permeability change resulting from ....  read more


Assessment of Longwall Mining Induced Connective Fracturing of Overburden Strata

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Author: Deepak Adhikary, Brett Poulsen and Manoj Khanal | CSIRO

As the Australian mining industry operates under strict environmental accountability, the ability to reliably predict and manage mining-induced water inflows and aquifer interference is critically important. Estimating the height of longwall mining-induced fracturing and the height of complete ....  read more


Assessment of Mine Roof Integrity

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Author: I Hutchinson, Peter Hatherly | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

A prototype tool has been developed to allow testing for instability and zones of weakness in a mine roof. The tool measures the velocity of a seismic wave passing through the rock mass. In general  ....  read more


Automatic Real Time Assessment of Windblast Risk

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Author: Van Zyl Brink, AR Newland | Snowden Associates

The main objective of this project was to automatically assess the risk of experiencing a windblast in a longwall operation. The logical extension of the risk assessment was the automatic generation of an alarm should the risk exceed pre-determined levels.

Certain conditions need to ....  read more


Carbolt Self Monitored, Yieldable Carbon Fibre Cable Bolt for Ground Control

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Author: Karsten Hoehn, Scott Barnes, Ian Greyvensteyn | Mining3, CSIRO

In general, there is a variety of rockbolts and roof support systems available on the market for mines to choose from. The most common type is the rock bolt, which consists of a metal rod with an anchoring component and a face plate. Some bolts are manufactured out of glass fibre reinforced ....  read more


Coal Destressing - Implications and Opportunities for Moderate to Deep Mines

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Author: Winton Gale | SCT Operations

The phenomena of coal shrinkage due to gas desorption is well-known in the field of coal gas testing.  The impact of this on roadway stability has not been widely recognised, as in the past most gassy seams were relatively thin (<3m) and the roof and floor were typically ....  read more


Coal Geomechanics Review - Scoping Study

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Author: Ted Brown | Golder Associates

On the recommendation of the Underground Research Sub-Committee, ACARP commissioned Golder Associates Pty Ltd to carry out a review of ACARP's underground geomechanics-related research with Professor E T Brown AC as the nominated reviewer. The objective was "to ....  read more


Consolidation Grouting of Fault Zones in Longwall Mines

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Author: Martin Watkinson | North Goonyella Coal Mines

Structurally related falls on the southern longwalls at North Goonyella Coal Mine are a continuing problem. Geotechnical monitoring, primary/secondary support design systems, in combination with standard Face Management Systems have helped reduce the number of fall events. NGCM's current ....  read more


Cost Effective Use of PUR and Optimising Large-Scale Injected Strata Reinforcement

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Author: Paul Buddery, Russell Frith, David Hall | Strata Engineering (Australia)

The project arose from a recognition that both small-scale and large-scale injected strata reinforcement techniques have the potential to play significant roles within the coal mining industry where the preferred support methods such as tendons, standing support and face powered supports ....  read more


Definition of Coal Mine Roadway Roof Failure Mechanisms

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Author: Winton Gale | SCT Operations

The aim of this report is to discuss the roof failure mechanisms in development roadways within coal mines. This is achieved by a discussion of failure modes within the rock mass and how they interact to cause the commonly observed gross deformation of the roof.

The commonly observed ....  read more


Detection of Incompetent Mine Roof Stage 2

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Author: JD Bunton, Colin E Jacka | CSIRO Telecommunications and Industrial Physics

This document reports on the work undertaken during 1996 as the second part of a project aimed at developing new technology to aid the reliable and objective evaluation of roof conditions in underground coal mines. Of particular concern are mines with conglomerate roofs, as found in the Great ....  read more


Determination of Stress Relaxation in Drill Core Using Laser Micrometry

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Author: Phillip Schmidt | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

This project brings together two techniques as a relatively cheap and rapid means of assessing underground horizontal stress conditions. These techniques are measurement of drill core relaxation using a laser micrometer and core orientation using palaeomagnetism. Drill core able to be ....  read more


Developing Prevention Techniques for Stress Corrosion Cracking Failures of Rock and Cable Bolts

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Author: Serkan Saydam, Honghao Chen, Hamed Lamei Ramandi, Önder Kimyon, Renxun Chen, Cindy Gunawan, Peter Craig, Michael Manefield, Naresh Kumar, Ismet Canbulat, Alan Crosky, Bruce Hebblewhite | University of New South Wales

In the past two decades, there has been a notable increase in reports on Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) failures of rockbolts and cable bolts in Australian underground coal mines. This trend is not limited to Australia, as similar failures have been reported in underground coal mines where ....  read more


Development of a Numerical Modelling Approach to Better Understand the Effect of Cable Bolt Performance on Roof Failure Mechanisms in Varying Rock Mass Conditions

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Author: Guangyao Si, Joung Oh, Paul Hagan, Xu Li, Ali Mirzaghorbanali, Ashkan Rastegarmanesh, Naj Aziz, Sina Anzanpour, Saman Khaleghparast | University of New South Wales, University of Southern Queensland, University of Wollongong

This project provides an improved numerical modelling approach to enhance mine safety, increase productivity and reduce costs via fit-for-purpose designs and more effective applications of cable bolts in different geotechnical environments. The project objective was to better understand the ....  read more


Development of an Intrinsically Safe, Integrated Wireless Communications Network with a Distributed Array of Geotechnical Sensors

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Author: Stuart MacGregor, Paul Seaward, Ann Wylie, Graham Wylie | SCT Operations, Holville

For over 20 years, SCT Operations (SCT) have provided a range of industry standard geotechnical instrumentation, including Tell-Tales (Rock-IT/Clock-IT), instrumented bolts, three dimensional stress monitoring cells and shear strips. This project outlines the development of a wireless enabled ....  read more


Development of Borehole Shear Monitoring Device for Routine Application in Coal Mine Roadways

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Author: Stuart MacGregor | SCT Operations

This project outlines the development of a cost effective, routine shear monitoring instrument for deployment in ungrouted boreholes. The system will be based on an existing MEMS (Micro Electrical Mechanical Systems) sensor from Holville that is certified (IECEx 12.0034X) intrinsically safe ....  read more


Development of Hydraulic Fracturing to Control Windblast

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Author: Ken Mills, Rob Jeffrey | SCT Operations, CSIRO Petroleum, HFT

This project was conceived following the first successful application of hydraulic fracturing to control caving at Moonee Colliery. The routine use of hydraulic fracturing at Moonee has provided a unique opportunity for development and refinement of hydraulic fracturing technique in a mining ....  read more


Development Of New Testing Procedure For The Assessment Of Resin Performance For Improved Encapsulated Roof Bolt Installation In Coal Mines

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Author: Naj Aziz, Jan Nemcik, Peter Craig, Robert Hawker | University of Wollongong,

In underground coal mining, the resin bond between the rock bolt and the strata is one of the critical elements of a roof bolting system, yet the Australian coal industry does not have an agreed standard for bolting system evaluation. A program of field and laboratory studies was undertaken to ....  read more


Dynamic Response Of Longwall Systems And Their Relationship To Caving Behaviour

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Author: Terry Medhurst | PDR Engineers

Massive strata overburden units are known to influence support loading on longwall faces. Past studies of the conglomerates in NSW and sandstones in Qld have identified factors such as unit thickness, proximity to coal seam, immediate roof strength and panel width that may all play a role in ....  read more


Dynamics of Wind Blasts in Underground Coal Mines

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Author: Chris Fowler, P Sharma | University of New South Wales

In some underground coal mines where the roof comprises strong and massive rock, the roof strata do not cave regularly as extraction progresses but 'hang up', leading to extensive areas of unsupported roof. These areas can collapse, suddenly and often without warning, compressing the  ....  read more


Electromagnetic Emissions Monitoring to Warn of Wind Blasts and Gas Outs

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Author: Keeva Vozoff | Vozoff & Associates

Electromagnetic signals are emitted by rocks as they fracture, in much the same way as acoustic signals, but by different processes and with different characteristics. The object of this project was to evaluate the potential usefulness of the emissions (EME) as warning signals, to complement ....  read more


Engineered Mine Design in Soft Strata Environments - Geomechanical Behaviour of Soft Floor Strata in Underground Coal Mines

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Author: Jim Galvin, Bruce Hebblewhite, Vasundhara | University of New South Wales

The work described in this thesis has been concerned with investigating the geomechanical behaviour of soft floor strata in underground coal mines, especially in the context of bord and pillar layouts. Many cases of significant  ....  read more


Establishing Anchorage and Failure Mechanisms of Fully Encapsulated Roof Support Systems

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Author: Jim Galvin, JC Offner, A Whitaker, M Fabjanczyk, J Watson | University of New South Wales

The Australian underground coal mining industry consumes 5 to 6 million rock bolts per annum. It has been independently concluded that between 30%-35% do not perform to specification. This represents an annual expenditure of $35-$40 million. There are no standardised methods for assessing rock ....  read more


Establishing the Strength of Irregular and Rectangular Pillars

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Author: Jim Galvin, MDG Salamon, BB Lin | University of New South Wales

The publication in 1995 of the UNSW Pillar Design Methodology provided the Australian coal industry with a tool for designing square shaped coal pillars to a high degree of ....  read more


Evaluation of the Chinese Outburst Assessment Methodology and Its Applicability to Australian Low Permeability Coal Seams

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Author: Qingdong Qu, Jingyu Shi, Johnny Qin, Andy Wilkins, Rao Balusu, Yiran Zhu | CSIRO

Australian coal mines use gas content as the primary index for assessing outburst propensity and risks, with gas composition, coal types and the presence of structures taken into consideration. This approach has been effective in preventing fatal outbursts over the years. However, as mining ....  read more


Floor Stability – A comprehensive investigation into failure mechanisms and controlling factors

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Author: Serkan Saydam, Ismet Canbulat, Joung Oh, Sungsoon Mo,Hamed Lamei Ramandi, Hossein Masoumi, Bruce Hebblewhite, Wendy Timms | University of New South Wales, Monash University, Deakin University

Several underground coal mines in Australia have been experiencing excessive floor deformation in roadways, better known as floor heave. Although the phenomenon does not generally have safety implications, unexpected floor heave can cause financial losses due to production delays. The modes of ....  read more


Geophysical Assessment of Fracture Grouting

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Author: Gary Fallon, Binzhong Zhou, Andrew King, Peter Hatherly | MIM Exploration, CSIRO Exploration & Mining

There are very high safety and production risks associated with mining through any weak zone associated with a fault or fractures. The mining industry seeks to reduce this by using fine, high pressure grouting techniques to stabilise such geomechnically weak zones. However considerable ....  read more


Geotechnical Design of Roof Support and Reinforcement

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Author: Ross Seedsman | Coffey Partners International

The aim of this project was to develop an engineering design methodology for roof support so that alternative bolting strategies can be compared qualitatively in terms of productivity, cost, safety, and risk. Such a design methodology will provide a framework to assess development rate ....  read more


Ground Engineering - Principles and Practices for Underground Coal Mining

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Author: Jim Galvin | Galvin and Associates Pty Ltd

This text is not published via the ACARP website.  It is available from Springer:


ACARP was pleased to support Emeritus Professor ....  read more


High Tensile Strength Support and Ventilation Membrane

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Author: David Laurence, DR Chalmers, PM Stothard, Jim Galvin | University of NSW

During a 1997 ACARP-funded mission to South Africa, an acrylic-based polymer membrane called Evermine (formerly known as Everbond) was identified as having considerable potential for Australian coal mining environments. Evermine was developed in South Africa for the CSIR Mining Technology ....  read more


Hydraulic Fracturing in Coal Mining

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Author: Ken Mills, Rob Jeffrey | SCT Operations, CSIRO Petroleum

This project was conceived as a follow up to ACARP Project C9024 “Development of Hydraulic Fracturing to Control Windblast” which focussed on the experience of successfully introducing hydraulic fracturing to control windblast at Moonee Colliery. A range of potential ....  read more


Improving Cavity Prediction on Longwall Faces Through a Combination of Reliable Convergence, Canopy Attitude and Leg Pressure Monitoring

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Author: Robert Trueman | Golder Associates

Most Australian coal mines have shield leg pressure monitoring in real time to aid the identification and remediation of roof control problems and to assist in the identification of faulty legs and yield valves. Newer longwalls are now equipped with tilt sensors that allow convergence ....  read more


Improving Safety & Performance of Timber Chock Constructions

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Author: Claire Offner, Jim Galvin, C McCartney, L Beer | University of New South Wales

Timber chocks are used on a systematic basis to support longwall tailgate roadways by 13 Australian longwall operators. At least five other operators use timber chocks on an as-needed basis. Typically, it requires about 80 acres of Australian hardwood forest to supply enough timber to chock one ....  read more


Improving the Up-time Efficiency of Roadway Development Units by the Use of Reduced Primary Bolting Densities and Routine Secondary Support

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Author: Rob Thomas, David Hill, Russell Frith | Strata Engineering (Australia)

This ACARP project sought to demonstrate that significant improvements could be obtained in the up-time efficiency of longwall gate road development units by optimising roof support practices and utilising improved support technology. The project built on the results of earlier ACARP-sponsored ....  read more


Integrating In-Situ Stress Patterns with Basin to Local Scale Structures in the Nebo Synclinorium, Bowen Basin

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Author: Mojtaba Rajabi, Renate Sliwa, Joan Esterle | The University of Queensland, Integrated Geoscience

Understanding the regional to local variability of stress field should be the starting point for mine design and practices because the stresses control the geotechnical behaviour and ground conditions of mine sites. The state of stress in most of the Australian basins is well understood. ....  read more


Investigation Into Roadway Roof Support Design Using the Geophysics Strata Rating

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Author: Terry Medhurst | PDR Engineers

This project was aimed to investigate methods of using roof monitoring data in combination with geophysics based models of strata conditions for roadway roof support design. The project has enabled development of an analytical model/graphical technique that provides a measure of both support ....  read more


Longwall Rock Mechanics In Massive Strata

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Author: Ian Gray, Tim Gibbons | Sigra

This report provides a description of the problems associated with mining in geotechnically massive strata. This is backed up with some cases drawn from the literature. The emphasis is then given to outlining the processes to determine what makes strata behave in a massive manner. This ....  read more


Mapping of Tensile Failures in Longwall Mining through New Microseismic Procedures

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Author: Xun Luo, Peter Hatherly, S Wang | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

The objectives of the project were to develop new microseismic methods to map tensile microseismic events round operating longwalls, and apply the new methods to the data set collected from microseismic monitoring projects already undertaken by CSIRO.

Methods of noise filtering in the ....  read more


Maximising In-Situ Stress Measurement Data from Borehole Breakout using Acoustic Scanner & Wireline Tools

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Author: Stuart McGregor | SCT Operations

The role of horizontal stress in affecting strata behaviour in underground coal mines has been well documented. In Australia, the nature and depth of the underground coal resources has resulted in high levels of horizontal stress, typically 2-3 times the vertical stress, and up ....  read more


Measuring the Height of Fracturing above Extracted Longwall Panels to Improve Reliability of Groundwater Impact Predictions

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Author: Ken Mills | SCT Operations

Longwall mining is a mining method widely used in the Australian underground coal industry. The disturbance to the strata overlying the mining horizon caused by longwall mining is recognised to impact the groundwater system and, in some cases, surface water systems as well. This project aimed ....  read more


Mechanical Behaviour of Reinforcement Elements Subjected to Shear

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Author: Paul Hagan, Luke Mahony | University of New South Wales

Strata control is one of the core risk areas in underground coal mining. The use of appropriate technology for ground support whether it be roof or ribs, primary or secondary and the effective management of this technology can be pivotal to achieving a safe and economical viable mining ....  read more


Modelling the onset of fracture-induced instabilities for underground mining operations

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Author: Anna Giacomini, George Kouretzis, Mason Crumpton | University of Newcastle

The propagation of fractures in coal seams and the surrounding rock mass can lead to instability at the face of longwalls or roof and ribs of underground roadways, resulting in injuries or delays to mining operations. In practice, bolt and cable systems are widely used to prevent roof failures ....  read more


Monitoring System for Improved Roof Management

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Author: Ken McNabb | Mincad Systems

This project concerns the development of a new instrument that is cheap, reliable and capable of routinely determining accurately strata shear deformation. Data from this shear monitor can be used to help assess support performance under changing geological and loading conditions.

The ....  read more


Multi Seam Layout Guidelines and Feasibility of Partial Chain Pillar Removal

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Author: Winton Gale | SCT Operations

Australian coal deposits commonly have coal seams in close proximity, however over recent times, underground mining has typically concentrated on the single seam mining of the most economic seam. The proximity of seams within the Hunter Valley in particular, lends ....  read more


Optimisation of Roof Bolt Length Based on Improved Resin Performance

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Author: Kent McTyer | Mine Advice

This study compared the performance of two types of resin capsules used for full encapsulation of roof bolts in underground coal mines. The first, a 15:1 mastic to catalyst capsule which is the predominant system used in Australian mines, despite some well-documented problems. The second, a ....  read more


Optimising the Selection of Fully Grouted Cable Bolts in Varying Geotechnical Environments

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Author: Paul Hagan | University of New South Wales

The primary objective of this research project was to develop a laboratory-scale test facility in Australia that can be used to determine the behaviour and assess the load transfer performance of fully grouted cable bolts under axial loading conditions. The facility had to be capable of testing ....  read more


Performance and Cost Effectiveness of Timber Chock Construction

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Author: Jim Galvin, BB Lin, AC Silveira, T Rochford | University of New South Wales

Eleven Australian longwall operators systematically support longwall tailgates with timber chocks. Average annual expenditure is approximately $180,000 with one operator expending over $500,000/annum on  ....  read more


Performance Evaluation of Flexibolt Flexible Roof Bolts

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Author: Peter Fuller, P O'Grady | Barrett, Fuller & Partners

The FLEXIBOLT flexible roof bolt was initially developed under NERDDC Project 1334. A number of collieries expressed interest in further development of the FLEXIBOLT so it could be applied as either long (>3m) or short tendons in the production environment.  To this end the project ....  read more


Performance of Cable Bolts Under Axial Loading Subjected to Varying Geotechnical Conditions

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Author: Paul Hagan, Danqi Li, Hossein Masoumi, Serkan Saydam | University of New South Wales

This project contributes to an improvement in mining geomechanics through better understanding by geotechnical engineers of the behaviour of different types of cable bolts leading to more informed decision-making in the design of ground control systems leading to a safer working environment. ....  read more


Premature Rock Bolt Failure

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Author: A Crosky, Mike Fabjanczyk, Peter Gray, Bruce Hebblewhite, B Smith | University of New South Wales, SCT Operations, Ground Support Services

This project was initiated in 1999 to address the observed phenomenon of premature failure of rock bolts in a number of Australian collieries, and with a particular focus on the problem of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in rock bolts. SCC occurs by the slow progressive growth of stress ....  read more


Premature Rock Bolt Failure: Stage 2

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Author: A Crosky, Michael Fabjanczyk, Peter Gray, Bruce Hebblewhite | University of NSW, SCT Operations, Ground Support Services

A previously funded ACARP project (C8008), conducted by the same collaborative research team, investigated the problem of premature failure of rock bolts due to stress corrosion cracking. That project was reported in April, 2002.

Stress corrosion cracking is defined, in ....  read more


Prestressing of Strands to Improve Cable Performance

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Author: Peter Fuller, M Bijelac, IR Hulls, T Rochford | BFP Consultants

High load capacity cable bolts and Flexibolts have the potential to be pretensioned to relatively high loads of 30 tonnes while still allowing further roof deformation and bolt loads to increase before  ....  read more


Real-time Rockmass Response from Microseismics

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Author: Andrew King, Michael Lofgren, Matt van de Werken | CSIRO Exploration and Mining

Microseismics is routinely used in hard-rock mines as a hazard-management tool for rockbursts. Its use in coal, however, has been limited by the challenges of seismic propagation in a coal environment. CSIRO, with support from ACARP and the industry, has been working to adapt the technique for ....  read more


Real-time Seismic Roof Condition Mapping Ahead of Longwall Mining

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Author: Xun Luo, Joey Duan, Matt Van de Werken | CSIRO

Poor roof conditions in a coal mine longwall panel may result in rock collapse. This can cause significant interruption to mine production. The ability to image roof conditions - stress and degree of fracturing - ahead of the face gives the mine the opportunity to proactively respond to such ....  read more


Reducing the Hazard of Windblast in Underground Coal Mines

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Author: Chris Flower, P Sharma | University of New South Wales

Wind blast in coal mines and its equivalent, air blast, in metalliferous mines have been of concern to the Australian underground mining industry for many years. Although the most recent fatality due to wind blast in a coal mine took place in 1976 at Eastern Main Colliery, incidents involving ....  read more


Reducing the Subjectivity of CMRR Calculation Using Machine Learning

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Author: Zhongwei Chen, Jimmy Xuekai Li, Joan Esterle, Ruizhi Zhong, Claire Pirona | The University of Queensland

The Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR) is a key input parameter for roof support design. This work aims to reduce the subjectivity of CMRR calculation by integrating geophysical logging data and laboratory data through the application of advanced machine learning algorithms, and to apply the ....  read more


Reinforcement Techniques for Weak Rock

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Author: Winton Gala, Mike Fabjanczyk | SCT Operations

The objectives of this project were to define the application of alternate reinforcement and support strategies for the stabilisation of weak strata.

They were achieved ....  read more


Reliable Estimation of Horizontal Stress Magnitudes from Borehole Breakout Data

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Author: Joung Oh, Ismet Canbulat, Bruce Hebblewhite, Zizhuo Xiang & Huasheng Lin | The University of New South Wales


The primary objective of this stage of the project was to develop a simple and reliable method to predict in situ horizontal stress magnitudes from existing borehole breakout data. In situ stresses are always crucial parameters for engineering designs and underground ....  read more


Review of Barrier Pillar, Bleeder, Chain Pillars in Weak Strata and Thick Coal

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Author: Mike Fabjanczyk, Greg Tarrant, Jan Nemcik, Winton Gale | SCT Operations

Prior to the commencement of this project, a number of mine sites had experienced adverse conditions in roadways in the vicinity of goafs.  These adverse conditions could not be easily explained with the understanding of strata behaviour at that time.

The strata  ....  read more


Review of Rib Failure Mechanisms in Underground Coal Mines

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Author: Yvette Heritage | SCT Operations

This project consisted of field measurement of rib deformation including monitoring of rib bolt loads and rib yield characteristics using a range of measurement techniques. The project aimed to assess the effectiveness of current industry rib support patterns with regards to the nature of rib ....  read more


Rib Support Design Methodology for Australian Collieries

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Author: Mark Colwell | Colwell Geotechnical Services

The aim of this project was to provide the Australian coal industry with a rib support design methodology and computer based design tool that can be utilised by colliery engineers and geologists who have sufficient experience and training in relation to underground ....  read more


Roadway Roof Stability and Its Attainment through Pre-Tensioned Bolting

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Author: Russell Frith | ACIRL

This report contains details of four small scale field trials of pretensioned roof bolting, achieved by the incorporation of a thrust bearing as a fraction washer between the dome washer and nut of a roof bolt head assembly.

The ....  read more


Roadway Stability Monitoring System

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Author: Chad Hargrave | CSIRO

This report describes the outcomes of a project that focussed on the development and trialling of a unique radar sensing technology to monitor roadway deformation in underground coal mines.

The development of technology capable of accurate and reliable monitoring of continuous regions ....  read more


Roadway Stability Monitoring System

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Author: Chad Hargrave | CSIRO

This report describes the outcomes a project that focussed on the next phase of development of a radar sensing technology designed to monitor roadway deformation in underground coal mines. The previous project, C25062, developed and trialled a proof-of-concept system. The primary goal of this ....  read more


Roof and Goaf Monitoring for Strata Control in Longwall Mining

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Author: Peter Hatherly, X Luo, Richard Dixon, B McKavanagh, M Barry, Z Jecny, C Bugden | CSIRO

The application of seismic monitoring techniques in Australian coal mining has been tested by a seismic monitoring study carried out at Gordonstone Mine. The intention was to map the extent of fracturing associated with longwall mining in the  ....  read more


Roof Condition Monitoring Ahead of a Longwall Face: Phase 1 - Initial Assessment and Experimental Tr

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Author: Xun Luo, Andrew King, Matt Van de Werken | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

The trend of longwall coal mining goes to longer and wider longwall panels for more production. The exhaustion of coal resources near the surface forces the panels to go deeper into higher stressed and more geologically complicated environments. Implementing tougher safety regulations requires ....  read more


Shear Testing of the Major Australian Cable Bolts Under Different Pretension Loads

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Author: Naj Aziz, Jan Namcik, Muhammad Hadi, Alex Remennikov, Duncan Best, Travis Marshall, Colin Devenish, Haleh Rasekh, Guanyu Yang ,Saman Khaleghparast and Xuwei Li, Ali Mirzaghorbanali, Alan Grant and Owen Rink | University of Wollongong, University of Southern Queensland and Megabolt

This report deals with shear testing of the major Australian cable bolt types using the Megabolt Integrated Single Shear Testing Rig (MISSTR). The MISSTR apparatus was selected to determine the cable shear strength values and to evaluate the debonding characteristics of various profiled cable ....  read more


Standing Support - It's Time for an Engineered Solution

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Author: Greg Tarrant | SCT Operations

This project was commissioned to develop a better understanding of the underlying strata mechanics of high deformation tailgate environments and to determine the required engineering characteristics of artificial supports to control such environments.

The project findings ....  read more


Subsidence Control Using Coal Washery Waste

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Author: Baotang Shen, Habib Alehossein, Brett Poulsen, Arthur Waddington | CSIRO, Mine Subsidence Engineering Consultants Pty Ltd

This report is the final report of the ACARP project - C16023 Subsidence Control Using Coal Washery Waste. The main objective of this project is to provide technical knowledge to support a trial of overburden grout injection technology to control mine subsidence in an Australian mine. The ....  read more


System for Early Prediction of Catastrophic Roof Failure

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Author: Ken Mills | SCT Operations

The project aims to develop a system to measure, on a routine basis, the horizontal pressure acting through the roof strata of underground coal mine roadways. This  ....  read more


Systems Approach to Pillar Design

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Author: Bruce Hebblewhite, Jim Galvin, B Sainsbury, Vasundhara, Winton Gale, R Whiteley, David Hill | University of NSW, SCT Operations, Coffey Geosciences, Strata Engineering

The Australian coal mining industry, through AMIRA, JCB and ACARP have funded research into pillar design methods for over 10 years with several million dollars worth of industry funds expended.

As a result of the research projects, several approaches to pillar design have evolved ....  read more


Underground Thick Seam Rib Support Using Active Reinforcement Stage 3

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Author: Brian McCowan, Russell Frith | ACIRL, Strata Engineering

Active rib bolting has been evaluated as a means of improving rib support effectiveness and reducing bolt densities in high gateroads. This project (Stage 3) has demonstrated that pre-loading rib bolts does  ....  read more


Understanding and quantifying the hydraulic characteristics of the overburden

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Author: Andy Wilkins, Manoj Khanal and Deepak Adhikary | CSIRO

Quantifying the hydraulic characteristics of the longwall overburden and surrounding surficial area that is influenced by the longwall extraction is crucial to determining the impact of mining on the local groundwater and surface water systems, understanding water flows to the mine workings ....  read more


Update of Stress Concentration Effects About Longwall panels for Improved Mine Planning

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Author: Winton Gale | SCT Operations

Recognition of horizontal stress concentrations about longwall panels was made during the 1980's and 90's. The nature and factors which influence the stress concentration has become more apparent with further

experience and study of the phenomenon in a wider range of geotechnical ....  read more


Use of Pro-active Resin or Grout Injection for Roadway Stabilisation by Promoting Improved Rock Mass Competence

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Author: Russell Frith | Mine Advice

This project addressed and evaluated a basic hypothesis, namely that the early injection of material into open bedding planes in the roof of a mine roadway that would substantially adhere to the rock, would have significant reinforcing benefits, the impetus for the project being published ....  read more


User Friendly Computer Program for Modelling Fracture Induced Instabilities in Underground Mining Environments

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Author: Mason Crumpton, George Kouretzis, Anna Giacomini | The University of Newcastle

The propagation of fractures in coal seams and the surrounding rock mass can lead to instability at the face of longwalls or roof and ribs of underground roadways, resulting in injuries or delays to mining operations. In practice, bolt and cable systems are widely used to prevent roof failures ....  read more


Wind Blast and Methane Expulsion: Extension of Field Monitoring to Generalise the Results of Projects C7031 and C8017

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Author: Chris Fowler, Bruce Hebblewhite | University of New South Wales

Caving is a fundamental aspect of most modern underground coal mining operations. However, in some mines where the roof comprises strong and massive rock, caving does not occur readily, resulting in an extensive mass of unsupported rock spanning a large void in the goaf. Such a 'hang up' may ....  read more



Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C34019Longwall Bretby Cable Handling Monitoring With Fibre Optics

This project examined the potential of using fibre optic sensing tec...

C28028The Inclusion Of High Interest Native Plants In Mine Site Restoration Programs: Propagation, Translocation And Field Re-Introduction

This report synthesises over 10 years of ex situ and in si...

C27049Mine Machine Radar Sensor Integration

The aim of this project was to develop an integrated radar sensor an...


Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C34029Validation Of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) As A Rapidly Deployable Field Technology To Estimate Coal Quality

Rapid evaluation of a coal resource by in-situ characterisation dow...

C34028Guidelines For Assessment Of Geotechnically Safe And Stable Post-Mining Landforms

The purpose of this project was to develop a guidelines document as ...

C34016Elements In Coal – A Start-To-End Analysis

This project explores the fate and concentration potential of critical e...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C26016Determining The Benefits Of Online Thickener Underflow Rheology Measurements

The aim of this project is to determine how useful the rheology meas...

C33056Modelling And Control Of Classifying Cyclones

Hydrocyclones are one of the key technologies for the classification...

C28056Surface Alloying Of Centrifuge Baskets And Sieve Bends Screen Surfaces To Increase The Service Lifetime

The main objective of this project was to improve the wear resistanc...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C33066Washability And Distribution Of Sulfur And Trace Elements For Different Size And Density Fractions Of Raw Coals

Based on the hypothesis that the levels of sulfur and other toxic tr...

C34060In-Situ Investigation Of Coke Structure Formation Under Stamp Charged Coking Conditions

Stamp charged cokemaking has emerged as an effective technique to im...

C34062Improving The Classification Of Microstructure Distribution In Coke CT Images Using Deep Learning And Lineal Path Calculations

This project builds on a number of earlier projects that have helped...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C28076Selective Absorption Of Methane By Ionic Liquids (SAMIL)

This third and final stage of this project was the culmination of a ...

C29069Low-Cost Catalyst Materials For Effective VAM Catalytic Oxidation

Application of ventilation air methane (VAM) thermal oxidiser requir...

C23052Novel Stone Dust Looping Process For Ventilation Air Methane Abatement

This multi‐phase project is concerned with the mitigation of m...

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community


National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook