Underground                                       reports


Our underground health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives include strengthening ventilation and gas management technology, minimising risks from fires and explosions, advancing emergency response technologies, reducing operating costs and improving reliability of subsidence predictions.

Roadway Development (34 Reports)

10 MPOH Continuous Haulage System For Longwall Gateroad Development

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Author: Peter Wypych | University of Wollongong

Despite attempts to introduce continuous haulage systems into Australian coal mines since the late-1980s, shuttle cars remain the primary method of coal clearance from face to panel conveyor in bord and pillar operations and longwall gateroad development. Such batch coal haulage systems have a ....  read more


An On-machine Bolting and Geotechnical Monitoring System

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Author: Jonathon Ralston, Chad Hargrave, Craig James, Zen Chai and Paul McPhee | CSIRO

The primary objective of this project was to investigate how laser scanning and processing technology could be used to determine the location of installed roof bolts in an underground coal mining roadway environment. Of secondary interest was the exploration of the degree to which ....  read more


Analysis of Roadway Development Systems and Assessment of Research Requirements

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Author: Michael Kelly | CSIRO Australia

In 1994 it was proposed by the ACARP Mining Systems Task Force, to formulate a detailed strategy and business plan for the future direction of roadway development research and specifically to use a systems approach in this formulation.

 ....  read more


Analytical Tools For Managing Rock Fall Hazards In Australian Coal Mine Roadways

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Author: Ross Seedsman, Nick Gordon, Naj Aziz | University of Wollongong, Seedsman Geotechnics Pty Ltd, Gordon Geotechniques Pty Ltd

This report provides a reference source for the design of ground control measures in coal mine roadways using analytical methods.  Analytical methods are based on identifying potential failure modes from knowledge of the geology, followed by simple analyses based on hand calculations, ....  read more


Australian Roadway Development - Current Status

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Author: Gary Gibson | Gary Gibson & Associates

Development rates are failing to keep up with advances in longwall production. The ACARP Roadway Development Task Group (RDTG) is seeking to address this through targeted research and development.

The RDTG utilised key findings of this scoping study, Project C15005,  to establish ....  read more


Automated Long Tendon Installation System

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Author: Des Conway | Conway Engineering

This project investigated the suitability of a novel design to simultaneously and independently spin and push a long tendon into a predrilled hole. The objective was to allow a tendon to be inserted whilst simultaneously bursting and mixing multiple resin sausages. This is considered an ....  read more


Automated Monorail Extension System For Roadway Development

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Author: Luke Meers, Stephen Van Duin | University of Wollongong

The supply of services to the continuous miner and the ventilation of the face area play an important part of the roadway development process. Monorail technology has improved the supply method of these services by allowing an advancing system to follow the miner carrying ventilation ducting, ....  read more


Benchmarking Study of Underground Coal Mine Logistics

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Author: David Walker, Chris Harvey, Ernest Baafi, Ian Porter, Senevi Kiridena | University of Wollongong

This project investigated the management of logistics within underground coal mines in Australia and considered mechanisms that might be utilised to ensure the movement of personnel and materials in and around a mine is achieved in a timely and efficient manner. Optimising the development of ....  read more


Cable Safe System for Shuttle Cars in Underground Coal Mines

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Author: Bob Ifield | Hyden Engineering

The primary objective of this project was to improve safety and to reduce the costs associated with failures of trailing cables on shuttle cars. A summary of related 'incidences' from the relevant authorities for the mines in NSW and QLD shows that up to 51% of the ....  read more


Cable-Safe System for Shuttle Cars

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Author: Bob Ifield | Hyden Engineering

The objective of the project was to improve safety and to reduce the costs associated with failures of trailing cables, through the application of a new product that may be retrofitted to existing fleets. This product: (1) increases the minimum tension to reduce failures resulting from the ....  read more


CM2010 Project: Continuous Miner Automation Component

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Author: David Reid, Chad Hargrave, Andrew Strange, Peter Reid, Karsten Hoehn , Mark Dunn, Jonathon Ralston | CSIRO

This project covers the second half of the planned effort required to demonstrate autonomous navigation (self steering) of a Continuous Miner (CM) to a proof-of-concept level. This report presents the work components undertaken and the research decisions made during the project, together with ....  read more


Coordination of Roadway Development Strategy

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Author: Michael Kelly | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

Roadway development is one of the most important issues facing the profitability, viability and future of underground coal mines. For the last decade roadway development has been unable to keep pace with improvements in longwall extraction rates.

In ....  read more


Critique of Mobile Boot End

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Author: Terry O'Beirne, David Price | ACIRL

ACIRL was commissioned by the Roadway Development Taskforce of ACARP to examine a relatively new device called a mobile boot end. The objectives being to critique its performance to date at 3 mines; comment on how this device may impact on longwall development systems of the near future and ....  read more


Development of an Assistive Shuttle Car Guidance System: Stage 2 Implementation

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Author: Jonathon Ralston, Hayden Clarke, Andrew Strange and Craig James | CSIRO

This project explored the development of a new assistive shuttle car guidance system to improve the safety, productivity and sustainability of roadway development operations. It built upon the reference design established in project C26049 Assistive Shuttle Car Stage 1 which outlined the ....  read more


Hi-Track/SEBS Continuous Haulage System

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Author: Sean Starling | Scott Technology

This project set out to redesign the Scott enclosed belt system (SEBS), in conjunction with the HiTrack support system, for underground coal mine applications. This project focused on three primary objectives:

· To develop a Fire Resistant and Anti-Static (FRAS) belt formulation ....  read more


Implementation of Roadway Development Strategy

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Author: Michael Kelly | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

Improvements in roadway development rates remain one of the most important issues in underground coal mining in Australia. Through a series of industry meetings and workshops in 1996-97, it was determined that applying a systems approach to current practice could both dramatically ....  read more


Integrated Roadway Development: A Strategic Industry Review

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Author: Jonathon Ralston, Craig James, David Hainsworth and Mark Dunn | CSIRO

This report describes the outcomes of a strategic review of Australian roadway development practice, capability and requirements. It identifies industry priorities, what is considered best practice and why, and provides recommendations to support delivery on the ACARP Roadway Development Task ....  read more


Lightweight Composite Conveyor Support Structures for Underground Coal Mines Applications

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Author: Gangadhara Prusty, Serkan Saydam, Sangarapillai Kanapathipillai & Phyo Thu Muang | University of New South Wales

Underground mines heavily rely on belt conveyor systems for efficient transportation of mined products, traditionally using steel conveyor structures. However, the weight and manual handling risks associated with steel structures pose safety concerns and productivity losses. Lightweight ....  read more


Longwall Automation

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Author: Mick Kelly, David Hainsworth, David Reid, Con Caris, Patrick Humphries, Jonathon Ralston, Chad Hargrace, Fusheng Li, Brett Poulsen, Ian Hutchinson, Hua Guo, Hal Gurgenci, Graham Brooker | CSIRO Exploration & Mining, CRCMining

The three-year $4.31m ACARP Major Longwall Automation project is complete. This report presents work programs undertaken, results achieved against original and re-scoped goals and recommendations for future work.

In general the major contributions of the project to longwall mining ....  read more


Longwall Automation 2

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Author: David Hainsworth, David Reid, Con Caris, JC Ralston, CO Hargrave, Ron McPhee, IN Hutchinson, A Strange, C Wesner | CSIRO

This report covers a nominal two-year extension to the Major Longwall Automation Project (C10100). This report presents work programs undertaken, results achieved against the original goals and subsequently re-scoped goals and recommendations for further work. This document is the final ....  read more


Longwall Gateroad Development Systems, Belt Top Pantechnicon

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Author: K Hall, Keith Robinson | Illawarra Conveyor Services

This Brief summarises the development of the Fan Trolley and Material Trolley. The project was sponsored by Springvale Colliery, in association with Illawarra Conveyor Services, Wollongong

Springvale Colliery had a requirement to provide auxiliary ....  read more


Polymer-based Alternative to Steel Mesh for Coal Mine Strata Reinforcement

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Author: Ernest Baafi, Ian Porter, Jan Nemcik, Kel Mews, Noel Noé and Daniel Gailer | The University of Wollongong

The report details work undertaken to develop a polymer-based alternative to steel mesh for longwall coal mine roadway strata support. The objective of the research was to develop a skin confinement system that can be remotely applied thereby facilitating automation of the roadway development ....  read more


Post Grouting Technology to Reduce Bolting Cycle Times

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Author: | Coffey

This report details the results of a roof bolt trial utilising the Ingersoll Rand marketed CT-Bolt at a number of collieries in the Sydney and Bowen Basins. The project was ....  read more


Productivity & Safety From Integrated Continuous Roadway Development System

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Author: | Capricorn Coal Management

This report addresses a commissioned roadway development project that set out to improve mining efficiency and reduced production costs. The scope of the project was to improve roadway  ....  read more


Rapid Roadway Development

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Author: Michael Kelly, Hau Guo, David Hainsworth Rao Balusu, K Mitchel, G Carter, Boatong Shen, D Adhikary, S Craig, H Kahraman | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

CSIRO and JCOAL signed an umbrella agreement for investment in productivity related research projects for the Australian underground coal industry in July 1997. Under the agreement, JCOAL agreed to jointly fund critical areas of research and development that would result in a direct improvement ....  read more


Rapid Roadway Development

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Author: David Hainsworth | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

The project commenced in 1998 and involved collaboration between ACARP, CSIRO, JCOAL, Boart Longyear, The IHI Corporation, Taheiyo Komatsu and Hydramatic Engineering (now Sandvik).  All funds allocated to this project have been expended and the work program forming project C9017 is now ....  read more


Review of Roof Support Options for Next Generation of Continuous Miner

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Author: Mahdi Zoorabadi, Winton Gale | SCT Operations

SCT Operations Pty Ltd have been requested by ACARP roadway development task group to conduct an assessment of roof support options for the next generation of continuous miners (CM). The feasibility of using a canopy-like system to protect the unsupported span of roadway, bolt placement close ....  read more


Rib Bolting Study

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Author: Michael W Fabjanczyk, Robert J Guy | Strata Control Technology

The ACARP Underground Mining Systems Task Force requested Strata Control Technology to prepare a brief study on the status of rib bolting in the Australian coal mining industry. This study would then be used to assist the task force in identifying  ....  read more


Self Drilling Rock Bolt Technology - Development of Self Drilling Rock Bolt

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Author: Peter Gray | Ground Support Services

A new Self Drilling Rock Bolt (SDRB) system has been developed which uses a pumpable resin system for full column resin encapsulation for immediate roof and rib support. A new drilling and injection system has also been developed to enable fast and efficient bolt installation.

 ....  read more


Self Drilling Rock Bolt Technology Development - Stage 1

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Author: Peter Gray | Ground Support Services

The results from this project are the culmination of four years of research by Ground Support Services Pty Ltd (GSS) into the Hot-Roll Forging process (HRF) for the production of hollow steel bars for use as Self Drilling Rock ....  read more


Self-Drilling Bolt Automation Trial

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Author: Mark Levey | OKA Rock Bolt Technologies

There are several self-drill roof bolt concepts and prototypes that have been trialled in the industry. This technology allows for a chemically anchored pre-tensioned, fully encapsulated installed bolt. The technology also allows for the self-drill rock bolt installation to be fully automated. ....  read more


Stage Three Report: Automated Bolting And Mesh Handling On A Continuous Miner

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Author: Stephen van Duin, Peter Donnelly, Ian Oxley, Luke Meers, Daniel Gailer | University of Wollongong

Roadway development rates across the Industry are failing to keep pace with modern longwall systems and are unlikely to sustain further improvements in longwall productivity unless step change improvements to roadway development equipment and practices are realised. Bottlenecks which constrain ....  read more


The Modelling of Roadway Development to Support Longwall Mining

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Author: Ernest Baafi, Geoff Gray, Ian Porter, Osvaldo Rojas | Simulation Modelling Services Pty Ltd and School of Civil, Mining & Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong

The practice of longwall mining is potentially an efficient and cost effective means of extracting coal from underground seams, however, for production targets to be achieved not only must the longwall perform as expected but roadway development must be kept ahead of the longwall advance. The ....  read more


Underground Roads Manual: Construction and Maintenance

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Author: Ross Seedsman, A Logan, G Cocks, B Nicholls | Coffey Partners International

Provide the means to improve underground road pavement construction and maintenance.

Summary of Situation

Good roads are essential in moving men and materials to and from the coal face. With the application of good pavement construction ....  read more



Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C34019Longwall Bretby Cable Handling Monitoring With Fibre Optics

This project examined the potential of using fibre optic sensing tec...

C28028The Inclusion Of High Interest Native Plants In Mine Site Restoration Programs: Propagation, Translocation And Field Re-Introduction

This report synthesises over 10 years of ex situ and in si...

C27049Mine Machine Radar Sensor Integration

The aim of this project was to develop an integrated radar sensor an...


Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C34029Validation Of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) As A Rapidly Deployable Field Technology To Estimate Coal Quality

Rapid evaluation of a coal resource by in-situ characterisation dow...

C34028Guidelines For Assessment Of Geotechnically Safe And Stable Post-Mining Landforms

The purpose of this project was to develop a guidelines document as ...

C34016Elements In Coal – A Start-To-End Analysis

This project explores the fate and concentration potential of critical e...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C26016Determining The Benefits Of Online Thickener Underflow Rheology Measurements

The aim of this project is to determine how useful the rheology meas...

C33056Modelling And Control Of Classifying Cyclones

Hydrocyclones are one of the key technologies for the classification...

C28056Surface Alloying Of Centrifuge Baskets And Sieve Bends Screen Surfaces To Increase The Service Lifetime

The main objective of this project was to improve the wear resistanc...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C33066Washability And Distribution Of Sulfur And Trace Elements For Different Size And Density Fractions Of Raw Coals

Based on the hypothesis that the levels of sulfur and other toxic tr...

C34060In-Situ Investigation Of Coke Structure Formation Under Stamp Charged Coking Conditions

Stamp charged cokemaking has emerged as an effective technique to im...

C34062Improving The Classification Of Microstructure Distribution In Coke CT Images Using Deep Learning And Lineal Path Calculations

This project builds on a number of earlier projects that have helped...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C28076Selective Absorption Of Methane By Ionic Liquids (SAMIL)

This third and final stage of this project was the culmination of a ...

C29069Low-Cost Catalyst Materials For Effective VAM Catalytic Oxidation

Application of ventilation air methane (VAM) thermal oxidiser requir...

C23052Novel Stone Dust Looping Process For Ventilation Air Methane Abatement

This multi‐phase project is concerned with the mitigation of m...

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community


National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook