Underground                                       reports


Our underground health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives include strengthening ventilation and gas management technology, minimising risks from fires and explosions, advancing emergency response technologies, reducing operating costs and improving reliability of subsidence predictions.

Maintenance (39 Reports)

Advanced Pattern Recognition through Machine Learning for DAS Conveyor Condition Monitoring

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Author: Paul Wilson, Long Giang, David Apolo | Mining3

The objectives of this project were to identify potential algorithms to allow machine learning to be used to render the system capable of making its own adjustments during commissioning and during operation.

A thorough literature review at the start revealed that the approaches that ....  read more


AFC Chain Reliability Study

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Author: David Cusack, Guan Zhiqiang, Barend J. Pienaar, Allan Boughen, Paul Lever | CRCMining

An ongoing trend in longwall mine planning is to demand longer, higher capacity and lower profile Armoured Face Conveyors (AFC).  The ACARP Landmark Automation project evaluation of downtime statistics from two Australian Longwall mines showed that AFC and BSL (Beam Stage Loader) chain ....  read more


BEV Charging Infrastructure Stage 1 and 2 Reports and Tools Booklet

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Author: Tony Goodwin | Palaris Australia

The project objective was to produce a study that highlights the challenges, impacts and solutions for charging infrastructure to operate Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) underground.  The project provides a report and work booklet relating to Battery Electrical Vehicle (BEV) charging ....  read more


Commercialisation of An Intrinsically Safe Portable Acoustic Bearing Fault Detection Unit for Underground Conveyors

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Author: Shaouki Ismail | Vipac Engineers & Scientists

Idler bearing failure on underground conveyors is a significant problem in the Coal Industry. Trunk conveyors in underground coal mines have around 5000 idler bearings per kilometre.  ....  read more


Condition Monitoring and Fault Detection of Longwall Shearer

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Author: Mary Ng | CRCMining

Improvement in equipment availability is recognised as a key factor to maximise returns from Australian longwall mining assets.  Previous analysis of LW equipment downtime identified the shearer as a significant contributor to this situation.  This project set out to build ....  read more


Condition Monitoring of Underground Mining Equipment

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Author: Mark Downey | BHP Research

This project was the first stage of a research program which has as its primary aim the introduction and development of condition based monitoring (CBM) maintenance practices into underground coal mining operations. The project was conducted by BHP Research in collaboration with BHP Steel, ....  read more


Conveyor Belting and Lagging Shear Characteristics - Drive Drum Slip

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Author: Alex Harrison | Conveyor Technologies

The primary aim of this project was to investigate the relationship between, drive slip, wrap angle and drum friction co efficient and how this relationship is affected by the shear characteristics of the materials involved.

This project was undertaken because ....  read more


Conveyor System Maintenance and Reliability

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Author: Alan Roberts | University of Newcastle, Centre for Bulk Solids & Particulate

In coal mining operations, materials handling constitutes a major component of the production costs.  Belt conveyors play a central role in the mining, processing, storage and transportation of coal. It is essential that they operate efficiently with maximum availability and with a ....  read more


Cutterhead Reliability Assessor for Underground Coal Mining

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Author: Xing Li, Yong Sun | CSIRO

This ACARP project was mainly aimed at developing a computer-based tool to help operators of continuous miners and longwall shearers more accurately evaluate the reliability of picks in uncertain coal mining environments for optimal operation and maintenance.  Rock properties and pick ....  read more


Development of an Alternative Electronic Spark Test Apparatus

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Author: Rajiv Shekar, Enver Bajram and Felipe Renon | Mining3, The University of Queensland

Since a high profile incident in 1998, where two widely deployed IS certified power supplies failed an intrinsic safety retest (Bell and Hookham, 1999), ACARP has funded numerous research projects investigating options for improving IS certification and testing procedures - especially with a ....  read more


Development Study of An In-Belt Transducer for Conveyor Condition Monitoring

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Author: Peter Georgiou | VIPAC Engineers & Scientists

The principal aim of this 18 month Phase A Research Project was to demonstrate the feasibility of an in-belt transducer system for conveyor belt condition monitoring. This has been successfully accomplished.

 ....  read more


Development Study of an In-Belt Transducer for Conveyor Condition Monitoring

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Author: Peter Georgiou | VIPAC Engineers & Scientists

The principal aim of this project was to demonstrate a prototype working in-belt transducer system for conveyor belt condition monitoring. The "in-belt" transducer system which is the subject of this study has the potential to provide continuous monitoring of a conveyor for  ....  read more


Distributed Acoustic Conveyor Monitoring

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Author: Paul Wilson, Edward Prochon, Fernando Vieira, Tim Brooks, Long Giang, Mohammad Amanzadeh, Scott Adam and Saiied Aminossadati | The University of Queensland

CRC Mining have investigated the application of fibre optic Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) for conveyor roller condition monitoring. This is the final report of project C24014.

Monitoring by means of acoustic distributed sensing can be achieved by using a single fibre optic cable ....  read more


Distributed Acoustic Conveyor Monitoring - Phase 2

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Author: Paul Wilson, Tim Brooks, Karsten Hoehn, Long Giang, Fernando Vieira | Mining3

This project is phase 2 of the distributed acoustic sensing project aimed at developing a technology for monitoring the condition of conveyor belts using fibre optics. Phase 1 (published as C24014), was a proof of concept phase which ended with a demonstration that an acoustic interrogator ....  read more


Electrically Safe Variable Speed Drives for Underground Mining Applications

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Author: Galina Mirzaeva, Peter Stepien | The University of Newcastle, ResTech

Common-mode-voltage (CMV) is known for creating bearing currents and electromagnetic interference (EMI) in industrial applications. Additionally, in underground earthing and protection environment, CMV has important safety implications. These are associated with potentially undetected fault ....  read more


Extending The Life Of Disposable Exhaust Filters In Vehicles Operating In Underground Coal Mines

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Author: Varun Rao, Daya Dayawansa, Damon Honnery, Scot Sharman, Gil Garnier & Paul Curcio | Monash University

Diesel particulate matter (DPM) control at underground coal mines has been an ongoing concern for some time, but mine operators have recently begun to take proactive approaches to improve the air quality in the mine atmosphere. Although there are other methods of reducing particulate emissions ....  read more


Fatigue Life Determination of DN20 D-Section 420 Stainless Steel Staples

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Author: Daniel Carpenter | BMT WBM

A common hydraulic fitting used in longwall systems is the Staple Loc type, available in many sizes from numerous manufacturers. A typical longwall installation might use in excess of 10,000 staples, with every one potentially subject to fatigue failure. Industry wide expectation for ....  read more


Improvements in Longwall Downtime Analysis and Fault Identification

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Author: Daniel Bongers | CRCMining

In this project we have developed a computer program for recording detailed information relating to face equipment downtime in longwall mining operations. This software is intended to replace the current manual recording of delay information, which has been proven to be inaccurate.

 ....  read more


Improving Longwall System Reliability

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Author: Daniel Bongers, Hal Gurgenci | CRC Mining

In this project we have developed a computer method for on-line analysis of trend monitoring data to detect and locate face equipment faults. The definition of a fault in the context of this project is any event that causes a production stoppage and downtime. The performance of the method was ....  read more


Industrialisation of Proof of Concept Wall-flow DOC + Filter System

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Author: Nick Coplin | Orbital Australia

The need to protect workers from diesel particulate matter (DPM) had led the underground coal mining industry to install disposable filter systems on their vehicles.

This project has progressed the industrialisation of the wall-flow DPF system with additional site work, assessments of ....  read more


Intrinsically Safe Touch Screen for Computer Interfaces in Hazardous Areas

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Author: Ron McPhee | CSIRO

In this project a robust transparent optically clear touch screen overlay was developed and prepared for intrinsically safe (Ex ia) certification for use in underground coal mines.


The design process concentrated on the following aspects of the product; suitability for ....  read more


Longwall Face Maintenance Optimisation

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Author: Hal Gurgenci, Zhiquiang Guan, David Proud | CRCMining, WBM

This report addresses the problems of low utilization of the face equipment in Australia longwall mines by analyzing the failure data collected in Moranbah North longwall face equipment. The primary source for determining the production delays has been the ASI databases provided by Moranbah ....  read more


Longwall Hydraulic System Over Pressurisation Hazards Prevention

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Author: Henry Bartosiewicz | Asset Performance Improvement

The risk of serious injury resulting from the uncontrolled release of high pressure hydraulic fluids is of ongoing concern in the longwall operations as there have been several fatal accidents and number of near miss incidents reported over the last 20 years.  All mines must recognise the ....  read more


Low Cost, Wireless, Intrinsically Safe Sensors for Underground Coal Mines

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Author: Ryan Norris, Mark Walter | Vayeron

The objective of this project was to prototype, test, develop and manufacture a low cost wireless, intrinsically safe sensor for use in underground coal mines. The focus was to produce a sensor which would be initially applied as an inclinometer for deployment on the longwall and that would ....  read more


Maintenance Practices in Undeground Coal Mines

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Author: Michael Withford, M Pemberton | Price Waterhouse Urwick

The objective of this study was to determine and critically evaluate the characteristics of maintenance in the mines. A key output was to be a concise set of performance indicators.

Information for the study was first collected  ....  read more


Measurement and Prediction of Cutting Forces and Vibrations on Longwall Shearers

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Author: Bulent Tiryaki | CRCMining

CRCMining has developed the Cutting Head Performance Analysis Software (CPAS) to predict cutter motor power, ranging arm reaction forces, and vibrations for different drum designs, coal seams, and shearer operational conditions. This project describes the work on THE DBT EL3000 shearer ....  read more


Near Real-time Adaptation of DAS Conveyor Monitoring

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Author: David Orn Johannesson, Edward Prochon, David Apollo Cando & Karsten Hoehn | Mining3

This project describes the fourth phase of the Condition Conveyor Monitoring System (CCMS) using Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) methodology. The previous research phases were Phase 1 [C24014] which demonstrated the feasibility of the system. Phase 2 [C25054] demonstrated proof of concept ....  read more


Non-Pneumatic Non-Solid Wheel

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Author: Bruce Louden | Big Tyre

The coal industry was keen to find an alternative to using solid wheels on loaders used in harsh mining conditions where pneumatic tyres were unsuitable.  To that end Big Tyre researched what could be done to develop a mechanically suspended tyre.

After significant materials ....  read more


Optimisation of Low and High Pressure Longwall Hydraulic Systems

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Author: Russell Smith | Quantise Consulting Engineers

This project aimed to establish if longwalls with Hi-Set systems could successfully operate with much lower main emulsion system pressures. Reducing the main emulsion system pressure would reduce the safety hazards associated with high levels of energy stored in the longwall hoses. The stored ....  read more


Proof of Concept of the Electronic Spark Test Apparatus on Existing Known Power Supplies

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Author: Rajiv Shekhar | Mining3

This project continued a long running research program into an electronic spark tester (EST) for methane based (gas group I) hazardous area applications. The EST is an alternative to the Spark Test Apparatus (STA), mandated by the IEC standard 60079-11 for spark ignition testing, a requirement ....  read more


Radio Remote Monitoring of Environmental and Conditional Data

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Author: Richard Danell, Mark Downey | BHP

This report presents the results of the development of a radio based system for the reliable transmission of condition monitoring data of a bandwidth of up to 10 kHz from a piece of mobile mining machinery to a location outside of the operations path of the unit and associated equipment. ....  read more


Shuttle Car Steering System Optimisation

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Author: Daniel Carpenter | BMT WBM

The condition of roadways in underground mines is of great importance, and currently also a research priority for ACARP. Maintaining good roads is particularly difficult at intersections where machines perform tight turns. Shuttle cars operate frequently at these locations hence the cornering ....  read more


Stage Two: Performance Based Specifications For Longwall Hose Assemblies

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Author: Henry Bartosiewicz | Maintenance Technology Institute, Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Monash University

The Stage One report is attached to the Stage Two Report available here. The longwall pressurised fluid power systems are a potential major hazard that may result in fatal injuries if they are not properly controlled and maintained.  The objective of this project was to assist the mine ....  read more


Towing Force Measurement of Various Mining Equipment - Part 2

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Author: Ian Stevenson | BMT WBM

BMT have designed and manufactured an instrumented load sensing pin for the purpose of evaluating tow force data under typical underground operating conditions and various towing configurations. Unfortunately, due to mine constraints, data was only able to be acquired under a single towing ....  read more


Transparent Flameproof Enclosure Cover

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Author: Ron McPhee, Peter Henderson, Philip Teakle | CSIRO Exploration & Mining, Beltana Highwall Mining

The necessary technologies and manufacturing processes required to successfully manufacture a large see-through flameproof enclosure cover have been identified and developed. Prototype transparent covers were manufactured and static pressure tested to the maximum pressure required for ....  read more


Underground Compressed Air Vehicle “UCAV”

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Author: Michael Christian | AMM Product Development

The project objectives were to:

  • Develop a prototype machine for transporting people in an underground coal mine;
  • Test the practical application of compressed air engines as a replacement for existing diesel-powered transport;
  • Prove this technology can travel
 ....  read more


Use of Plastic Metal in Underground Coal Mines for Minor Repair on Flameproof Equipment

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Author: Bipin Parmar, David Turner and David Soady | Simtars

The potential for a gas or dust explosion arising from hot work and welding repair of certified flameproof equipment in underground coal mines is fairly high.  In order to reduce the need for such hot work, underground coal mine operators initiated a request to study the behaviour of ....  read more


Verification of Spark Ignition Test Apparatus for High Current IS Circuits

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Author: Andre DeKock, Jim Birch | SIMTARS

The aim of this project is to verify the use of a Spark Test Apparatus (STA) for use at higher currents than currently set out in the standard IEC 60079.3. This was to be achieved through the use of a different electrode to that specified in the International Electrotechnical Commission ....  read more


Wall-Flow Type System to Replace Existing Wet Element Filter Systems used in Typical LHD in Underground Operations

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Author: Nick Coplin | Orbital Australia

ACARP project C25073 was proposed by industry stakeholders seeking a potential solution that both improves worker health through improved underground air quality and reduces operational costs associated with currently implemented technology used to control diesel particulate emissions in that ....  read more



Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C34019Longwall Bretby Cable Handling Monitoring With Fibre Optics

This project examined the potential of using fibre optic sensing tec...

C28028The Inclusion Of High Interest Native Plants In Mine Site Restoration Programs: Propagation, Translocation And Field Re-Introduction

This report synthesises over 10 years of ex situ and in si...

C27049Mine Machine Radar Sensor Integration

The aim of this project was to develop an integrated radar sensor an...


Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C34029Validation Of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) As A Rapidly Deployable Field Technology To Estimate Coal Quality

Rapid evaluation of a coal resource by in-situ characterisation dow...

C34028Guidelines For Assessment Of Geotechnically Safe And Stable Post-Mining Landforms

The purpose of this project was to develop a guidelines document as ...

C34016Elements In Coal – A Start-To-End Analysis

This project explores the fate and concentration potential of critical e...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C26016Determining The Benefits Of Online Thickener Underflow Rheology Measurements

The aim of this project is to determine how useful the rheology meas...

C33056Modelling And Control Of Classifying Cyclones

Hydrocyclones are one of the key technologies for the classification...

C28056Surface Alloying Of Centrifuge Baskets And Sieve Bends Screen Surfaces To Increase The Service Lifetime

The main objective of this project was to improve the wear resistanc...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C33066Washability And Distribution Of Sulfur And Trace Elements For Different Size And Density Fractions Of Raw Coals

Based on the hypothesis that the levels of sulfur and other toxic tr...

C34060In-Situ Investigation Of Coke Structure Formation Under Stamp Charged Coking Conditions

Stamp charged cokemaking has emerged as an effective technique to im...

C34062Improving The Classification Of Microstructure Distribution In Coke CT Images Using Deep Learning And Lineal Path Calculations

This project builds on a number of earlier projects that have helped...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C28076Selective Absorption Of Methane By Ionic Liquids (SAMIL)

This third and final stage of this project was the culmination of a ...

C29069Low-Cost Catalyst Materials For Effective VAM Catalytic Oxidation

Application of ventilation air methane (VAM) thermal oxidiser requir...

C23052Novel Stone Dust Looping Process For Ventilation Air Methane Abatement

This multi‐phase project is concerned with the mitigation of m...

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community


National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook