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Open Cut                                          reports

Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research. We have supported work on an automated swing loading system for electric shovels, the science of rehabilitation and minimising mining impacts on neighbouring communities.


Geology (26 Reports)

Bulking and Subsequent Self-Weight and Saturation Settlements, and Geotechnical Stability, of Deep Coal Mine Spoil Piles

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C1902202/09/2015
Author: David Williams | The University of Queensland

Australia's open cut coal mines are extending to ever increasing depths, with correspondingly deeper associated spoil piles. As the depth of spoil increases, the net bulking of the spoil becomes critical to the design, sizing, geotechnical stability assessment, and cost estimation, of both ....  read more

 

Characterisation of Overburden Rock Mass and Top Coal Delineation Using Triaxial Drill Bit VSP Method

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C1902001/05/2014
Author: Shivakumar Karekal, Nobukazu Soma and Toshiyuki Tosha | CSIRO, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan

Coal loss and coal dilution is a serious problem in open pit coal mines. Poor structural characterisation of rock mass can lead to poor fragmentation which could hamper the productivity of draglines often used in cast blasting to remove the overburden. Coal loss and dilution can amount to ....  read more

 

Coal Subsurface Mapping for Open Cut Selective Mining

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C2503516/10/2018
Author: Andrew Strange and Zak Jecny | CSIRO

A reliable coal seam sensing system is required to improve the productivity of selective mining in open cut mining operations. Currently, operators are required to manually adjust the material extraction depth based on various cues, such as sight or machine vibration as the implement cuts the ....  read more

 

Effective Slope Monitoring for Open Cut Coal Mines

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C1702310/09/2012
Author: Albert Cabrejo, Neal Harries | GroundProbe

This research project has been undertaken with the aim of improving knowledge in the behavior of the rock slopes at Australian coal mines. A large database of Slope Stability Radar (SSR) deformation data has been searched and analyzed for rock failures using parameters related to deformation ....  read more

 

Energy Adsorption Capacity of Muck Piles and their Status as Engineered Hard Barriers

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C2103212/02/2017
Author: Klaus Thoeni and Anna Giacomini | The University of Newcastle

Windrows or safety berms are used in mine sites to protect haul trucks from rolling over an edge and to avoid collisions. Their current design is based on rules of thumb and the behaviour of windrows in mining applications is still poorly understood. It is, however, well known that the problem ....  read more

 

ESFC-Based Trigger Levels For Monitoring Pit Wall Stability

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C1503301/11/2011
Author: John Simmons | Sherwood Geotechnical And Research Services

Project C15033 involved detailed theoretical and fieldwork-based investigations of a perplexing geotechnical hazard for open cut coal mining.  Sudden composite-style failures of highwalls typically occur while coal mining activities are taking place at pit floor level.  Within the ....  read more

 

Geotechnical Hazard Awareness Video for Open Cut Coal Mines

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C2603301/06/2018
Author: Ismet Canbulat, | The University of New South Wales

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Safety training means helping people to develop skills, telling people what they should or should not do, or it simply provides them with information (HSE, 2016). Safety training ....  read more

 

Improved Management Of The Rock Fall Hazard At The Base Of The Highwalls

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C1902622/09/2017
Author: Anna Giacomini, Cedric Lambert, Klaus Thoeni | University of Newcastle, University of Canterbury

Rockfalls are a significant safety hazard in open pit mines and underground mine entries from open cut highwalls. The project aimed to gather coal-mine specific data on rock falls with and without rock fall netting, and to outline a more rigorous approach to the design of face bolting, rock ....  read more

 

Improved Structural Mapping of Pit Walls Using UAV-based Mobile Laser Scanning

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C2603022/12/2018
Author: Simit Raval and Bikram Banerjee | The University of New South Wales

This project evaluated the suitability of a UAV-LiDAR system for mapping structural characteristics of pit walls compared to terrestrial laser scanning and UAV-photogrammetry. A UAV-LiDAR system was integrated, tested in a controlled environment and then deployed in an active mine environment. ....  read more

 

Improving the Reliability of Density and Grade Estimation from Borehole Geophysical Log Suites

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C1503601/08/2007
Author: Binzhong Zhou, Joan Esterle | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

Project Objectives

Coal density plays an important role in projecting and reconciling coal tonnage and quality variation. The best estimation of coal density is from direct measurement on core, but cored holes are sparse relative to chip holes due to the ....  read more

 

Investigations For Open Pit Geomechanics Using Geophysical Logs

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C2002501/05/2013
Author: Peter Hatherly, Terry Medhurst,Binzhong Zhou | Coalbed Geoscience, PDR Engineers, CSIRO

With the move towards deeper open cut coal mines, there is a need for on-going developments in technologies which allow management of geotechnical risk and the maintenance of high levels of productivity. Areas where development is required include highwall stability monitoring, semi-automated ....  read more

 

Non-destructive Characterization of Borehole Coal Samples Using X CT Technology

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C2302401/05/2015
Author: Chris Plackowski, Anh Nguyen, Chen-Luh Lin and Jan Miller | University of Queensland, University of Utah

Exploration and development of a new coal mine and mine plan strategy depend on the characterization of borehole coal samples. Their washability characterization is one of the important, well-defined steps to be followed and has been achieved by conducting Float and Sink (FaS) testing as ....  read more

 

Open Cut Mine Wall Stability Analysis Utilising Discrete Fracture Networks

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C2002901/04/2012
Author: Marc Elmouttie, George Poropat, Philip Soole | CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering

Identification of geotechnical hazards in pit walls is an ongoing operational requirement in open pit mining. Improvements in techniques for hazard identification have significant safety implications as open cut operations get deeper and the risks of wall failure increase. The hazards of ....  read more

 

Pit Wall Strength Estimation With 3D Imaging

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C1803001/05/2011
Author: Hua Guo, Shivakumar Karekal, George Poropat, Philip Soole and Cedric Lambert | CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering

Since discontinuities, such as joints, faults, and bedding planes in a rock mass are generally weaker than the intact rock, they often govern the strength of the rock mass and thus control the stability of pit walls. Reliable and efficient estimation of the shear strength of the discontinuities ....  read more

 

Quantitative Elemental Analysis of Major, Minor and Trace Elements in Coal and Host Rocks by Logging

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C1602903/12/2008
Author: Stephen Fraser, Craig Smith | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

Knowledge of the distribution of major, minor and trace elements in coals and interburden materials is increasingly important. Technological developments now suggest that such elemental distributions may be determined using a downhole logging tool. This study was undertaken to achieve two ....  read more

 

Rangal Supermodel 2015: The Rangal-Baralaba-Bandanna Coal Measures in the Bowen and Galilee Basins

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C2202825/02/2017
Author: Renate Sliwa, Joan Esterle, Laura Phillips & Steven Wilson | The University of Queensland

This project compiled over 7000 company boreholes supplemented by more than 1000 open file petroleum (mostly CSG) wells to develop a regionally consistent stratigraphy for the Rangal-Baralaba-Bandanna Coal Measures in the Bowen Basin and the Galilee Basin.

 

The results are ....  read more

 

Rockfall Hazard Matrix for Risk Reduction in Mine Sites

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C2302608/09/2016
Author: Anna Giacomini, Federica Ferrari, Klaus Thoeni, Cedric Lambert | The University of Newcastle and Golder Associates

Rockfall is a major safety hazard in open pit mines which can also have financial consequences should the production be temporarily stopped for safety issues. The safety of the workers in all the areas potentially affected by rockfall has to be rigorously ensured and the risk of not being able ....  read more

 

Shear Strength Characterisation of In-pit Mud to Ensure Low Wall Stability

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C2504001/06/2019
Author: David Williams | The University of Queensland

High wet season rainfall totals between 2008 and 2013 resulted in the extensive flooding of open cut coal mines, particularly in the Bowen Basin and the formation of in-pit “mud” up to 10 m deep.  To re-start mining and spoiling in-pit, it has proved necessary to remove the ....  read more

 

Structure Supermodel 2017 - Fault Characterisation in Permian to Jurassic Coal Measures

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C2403201/02/2018
Author: Renate Sliwa, Abbas Babaahmadi & Joan Esterle | The University of Queensland

This report provides a detailed characterisation of deformation overprinting the Permian to Jurassic coal measures of Queensland. It addresses the ACARP objective to improve understanding of key aspects of Australia's coal basins and how they impact on mining conditions, by providing a ....  read more

 

Tertiary Volcanic Fields of Eastern Australia: Regional Characteristics and Implications for Coal Quality and Mining

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C2202301/03/2016
Author: Charles Verdel and Isabelle Jones | University of Queensland

ACARP project C22023 focused on the influence of Cenozoic basalts on coals of the Bowen Basin and nearby basins in eastern Australia. The project included a compilation of drillhole data, which illustrate regional-scale variations in the thickness of basalts. These thicknesses tend to be ....  read more

 

The Application of the Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) Seismic Method for Shallow Open Cut Coal Exploration

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C1702501/05/2009
Author: Koya Suto | Terra Australis Geophysica Pty Ltd

The Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) is a recently developed seismic method to estimate S-wave velocity structure under the ground. It analyses the seismic waves in the frequency domain for the dispersion property of surface waves and estimates the distribution of the S-wave ....  read more

 

The Stability of Very High Spoil Piles

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C2001904/09/2017
Author: John Simmons, Stephen Fityus | Sherwood Geotechnical and Research Services, University of Newcastle

ACARP Project C20019 was commissioned to investigate the strength of spoil materials and groundwater conditions within spoil dumps, and provide guidance for reliable geotechnical design. The design reliability issue arose because current designs are based on precedent testing and experience ....  read more

 

Tool for Rapid and Consistent Capture of Drill Core Observations

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C1503710/08/2007
Author: Renate Silwa, Peter Dean, George Poropat | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

Central to all geological characterization, including the interpretation of vast amounts of geophysical data are geological observations made on drill core and chips. Two factors that impede the quality and reliability of these observations are inconsistencies of visual observations ....  read more

 

Top of Coal Detection in a Rotary Air Blast Drill Rig

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C2406418/05/2017
Author: Enver Bajram, Long Giang, Joel Kok and Daniel Hudson | Mining3

Accurately detecting the approaching top of a coal seam prior to blasting is fundamental to efficient coal recovery.  Previous investigations by member mining companies reported a 66% reduction in coal dilution through disciplined and detailed overburden drilling and blasting practices. ....  read more

 

Towards 3D, Integrated P+PS Seismic Imaging of Coal Targets

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C1702927/07/2011
Author: Shaun Strong, Steve Hearn | Velseis

Compressional-wave (P-wave) seismic reflection is a valuable tool used throughout the coal industry, for exploration (mainly 2D reflection) and mine planning (3D). Shear-wave (S-wave) reflection presents interesting theoretical potential, but is more difficult to implement. Previous ACARP ....  read more

 

XCT Prediction of Breakage and Washability of Borehole Cores

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C2502701/03/2018
Author: Tuan Nguyen, Anh Nguyen, Chen-Luh Lin and Jan Miller | University of Queensland, University of Utah

The most critical parameters for the efficient design and planning of coal mining and processing operations depend on the accurate prediction of coal breakage and washability characteristics of the coal resources. The aim is to establish the most “effective” liberation of the coal ....  read more

 

Underground

Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C25060Development Of Borehole Shear Monitoring Device For Routine Application In Coal Mine Roadways

This project outlines the development of a cost effective, routine s...

C26063Reliable Estimation Of Horizontal Stress Magnitudes From Borehole Breakout Data

The main objective of the project is to develop a reliable and simpl...

C26053Predict Stress State And Geotechnical Conditions Near Major Geological Structures Using Microseismic Technology And Distinct Element Modelling

Stress state and geotechnical conditions often change significantly ...

Underground

Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C25031Developing Closure Criteria For River Diversions: An Alternative To Reference Sites

The use of reference sites for establishing closure criteria in area...

C26034Coking Properties Deterioration In Small Samples

Accurate evaluation of coking coal parameters at the exploration sta...

C23029Alternative And Sustainable Explosive Formulations To Eliminate Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

This technical report describes the technology of a novel mining exp...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C250083D Flotation Of Fine Particles

In this project a process for the continuous, selective agglomeratio...

C26009Improved Precision Of Determining Coal In Urban Dust

Dust samples collected in coastal locations using High Volume Air Sa...

C25014Plant Scale Testing Of Safe Aerosol Frother Addition To Reduce Residual Frother And Reagent Costs

The use of frothers in the froth flotation process is essential in ...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C26044Physical And Chemical Interactions Occurring During Cokemaking And Their Influence On Coke Strength

This project builds onto a previous project , C24055 in which macera...

C27056Imaging Gas Penetration Inside Coals And Cokes And Determining Influence On Coke Reactivity

The suitability of cokes for use in a blast furnace is determined by...

C26045Mineralogy Effects On The 3D Porosity Evolution Of Coke And Coke Reactivity

CRI/CSR CO2 combustion data are key metrics of coke quality and perf...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C27058Technological Assessment Of A Recycle Reactor For VAM Abatement

Underground coal mining emits high volumes of methane, diluted in ve...

C27008Selective Absorption Of Methane By Ionic Liquids

The connection of a ventilation air methane (VAM) abatement plant di...

C24061Proof-Of-Concept Photocatalytic Destruction Of Methane For Coal Mining Fugitive Emissions Abatement

Australia's fugitive emissions in 2015 were 41 Mt CO2-e (representin...

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community

NERDDC

National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook

NERDDC