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Our underground health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives include strengthening ventilation and gas management technology, minimising risks from fires and explosions, advancing emergency response technologies, reducing operating costs and improving reliability of subsidence predictions.

Geology (47 Reports)

4D Visualisation of Exploration & Mine Data

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Author: Guy LeBlanc Smith, Con Caris, Gil Carter | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

This project has successfully addressed one of ACARP's research priorities for techniques that aid in the prediction of mining conditions and geological disturbance of coal seams particularly for longwall mining.   The objective of this project was to demonstrate an interactive, ....  read more


A New Approach for Locating & Mining through Dykes in Longwall Operations

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Author: Adrian Hutton, Greg Poole, Scott Thomson, Ernest Baafi | University of Wollongong, BHP Billiton Illawarra Collieries, CoalBed Concepts,

Efficient and profitable coal mining is reliant on reducing mining costs which requires reducing or minimizing hazards that are likely to slow down or temporarily stop mining. Understanding the geology is a vital component in this exercise because many geological structures, if undetected, ....  read more


Advanced Logging Tool Phase II

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Author: Edward Prochon | CRCMining

The aim of the Advanced Logging Tool project was to develop a suite of Measurement Whilst Drilling (MWD) tools for the Underground In-Seam (UIS) drilling industry that can facilitate faster and more reliable holes to be drilled by providing accurate Coal Interface Detection (CID) for ....  read more


Application of the Geophysical Strata Rating in Production Settings

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Author: Terry Medhurst, Peter Hatherly, Binzhong Zhou, Genxi Ye | PDR Engineers, Coalbed Geoscience formerly CRC Mining/University of Sydney, CSIRO Exploration and Mining, University of Science and Technology, Beijing

Through previous ACARP projects C11037 (Hatherly et. al, 2003) and C15019 (Hatherly et al., 2008) a new methodology for rating rock masses was introduced. Termed the Geophysical Strata Rating (GSR), this empirical scheme was developed for the clastic rocks typically found in the coal mining ....  read more


Automated Mineralogical Logging of Coal and Coal Measure Core

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Author: Stephen Fraser, Joan Esterle, Colin Ward, Ruth Henwood, Peter Mason, Jon Huntington, Phil Connor, Reneta Sliwa, Dave Coward, Lew Whitbourn | CSIRO Exploration & Mining, University of NSW, McElroy Bryan Geological Services

A mineralogical core logging system based on spectral reflectance (HyLogger™) has been used to detect and quantify mineralogies in coal and coal measure sediments. The HyLogger™ system, as tested, operates in the visible-to-shortwave infrared spectral region, where iron ....  read more


Automated Structural Mapping in Underground Mines using Mobile Laser Scanning Technology

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Author: Simit Raval and Sarvesh Kumar Singh | University of New South Wales

This project evaluated an off-the-shelf mobile laser scanner (ZebRevo) for automated mapping of structural discontinuities and other geotechnical features in underground coal mines.

The data collected in handheld mode incurred low mapping drift over a medium scale (≈ 500 m) and ....  read more


Automatic Determination of Lithology Boundaries from Downhole Geophysical Logs

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Author: Brett Larkin | GeoCheck

Coal geologists undertake drilling to assist them in estimating both the lateral and vertical extents and quality of their coal.   

When coal geologists drill a borehole, they usually collect two types of data:

  • Geological logs recording the chips or core samples
 ....  read more


Borehole Data Standard for the Australian Coal Industry

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Author: Brett Larkin | GeoCheck

The outcomes of this project are available free of charge from

Before CoalLog, approximately 30 different data formats and over 100 different data code translation tables were ....  read more


Coal Quality Data eXchange (CQDX) Laboratory to Customer Data Transfer

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Author: Federico Arboleda, Mike Evans, Jared Armstrong | acQuire Technology Solutions

The project was commissioned in recognition of an industry wide need to improve the transfer of coal laboratory instructions and coal quality results between coal laboratories and their clients. The project was conducted as a joint venture between ACARP, acQuire Technology Solutions, SGS and ....  read more


Coal Quality from Geophysical Logs for Enhanced Resource Estimation

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Author: Binzhong Zhou, Graham O'Brien | CSIRO

Coal quality parameters such as ash content, density, volatile matter and specific energy are important to the coal mining industry from mine planning, design, extraction and beneficiation through to utilisation. These parameters are traditionally obtained through laboratory analysis conducted ....  read more


CoalLog Manual - Borehole Data Standard For The Australian Coal Industry

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Author: Brett Larkin, David Green | GeoCheck Pty Ltd & Green Exploration and Mining Services Pty Ltd

The outcomes of this project are available free of charge from

Before CoalLog, approximately 30 different data formats and over 100 different data code translation tables were being used in the capture of geological and geotechnical data throughout the Australian ....  read more


Comparative Study of In-Seam Surveying Technology (Coal Interface Detection Project)

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Author: Scott Thomson, Scott Adam, Peter Hatherly | CRCMining

In-seam drilling in the Australian coal industry is essential to reduce gas levels. Drilling is also sometimes used to assist mine exploration planning by identifying geological structures. An inherent weakness in the current system of in-seam drilling is the ....  read more


Design, Certification and Manufacture of an IS Geophone for Underground Coal Mining

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Author: Xun Luo, Ron McPhee | CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering

Two geophone assemblies have been developed and accredited as intrinsically safe (Ex ia) under the IEC scheme. The first geophone is a single element uni-axial geophone and the second is a three-element tri-axial geophone, both of which are suitable for deployment in Australian and ....  read more


Detailed Geological Characterisation from Seismic Data

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Author: Peter Hatherly, Binzhong Zhou, Troy Peters, Milovan Urosevic | CRC Mining, University of Sydney

The use of seismic reflection surveying continues to grow within Australia's underground coal mining regions of the Sydney and Bowen Basins. 3D seismic surveys aimed at providing detailed information on the structures with the potential to affect longwall operations are now being routinely ....  read more


Determination of Goaf Delamination Horizons and Other Roof Geomechanical Features using Downhole Acoustic Logs

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Author: David Green, Barry Ward | Green Exploration & Mining Services, Geotechnical Consulting Services

This project has sought to utilise the acoustic scanner log and the sonic log to detect and define features within the overburden of a coal seam which control roof stability and goaf formation. In order to do this it was first necessary to validate the features interpreted from the scanner by ....  read more


Enhancing Fault Detection by Seismic Diffraction Imaging

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Author: Binzhong Zhou, Peter Hatherly, Weijia Sun | CSIRO, Coalbed Geoscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Faults cause breaks in continuity of seismic horizons and at these discontinuities, diffraction patterns in seismic waves are generated. This is a well understood phenomenon but modern seismic acquisition and processing techniques are mainly directed towards providing high resolution images of ....  read more


Forward Looking Radar for Early Sensing of Ground Conditions

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Author: Jonathon Ralston, Chad Hargrave | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

This report presents the findings of a 12 month fundamental research project undertaken by the CSIRO Exploration and Mining.  This effort was driven by the desire to investigate and identify new methods and applications of ground penetrating radar to benefit the underground coal ....  read more


From Resources to Reserves through Quantitative Risk Assessment: Decision Support for JORC Compliance

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Author: Shuxing Li, Peter Knights, Pedro Valenzuela | CRCMining, University of Queensland

The uncertainties and risks associated with the JORC code modifying factors have a significant impact on the conversion of coal resources to reserves. These factors include geological, geotechnical, metallurgical, mining, environmental, marketing, legal, social and governmental variables.

 ....  read more


Geophysical Strata Rating

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Author: Peter Hatherly, Terry Medhurst, Stuart MacGregor | CRCMining

The Geophysical Strata Rating (GSR) is a means of empirically estimating the quality of rock masses through an analysis of geophysical logging data. It is based mainly on sonic log data and it recognises that in clastic sedimentary rocks, sonic velocity varies with both the rock type and the ....  read more


Geotechnical Evaluation for Mining - Assessing Rock Mass Conditions Using Geophysical Logging

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Author: Peter Hatherly, Terry Medhurst, Binzhong Zhou, Hua Guo | CSIRO Exploration & Mining, Australian Mining Consultants

This project involves a comprehensive investigation into the use of geophysical logging for rock strength estimation.

Full waveform sonic logging
Aspects of seismic wave propagation are reviewed to provide a basis for understanding full waveform sonic logs and the ....  read more


German-Australian Demonstration of the Application of Lotem Measurement in Coal Mining

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Author: Keeva Vozoff, O Engels, Greg Poole, S Lintker | Harbourdom Consulting, BHP Coal, DMT

The primary objective of the project was to show that it is possible to obtain important information about drainage and fluid content of coal seams from surface electromagnetic (LOTEM) measurements combined with reflection seismic data resistivity logs. If this ....  read more


Imaging Coal Seam Structures under Basalt Cover

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Author: Binzhong Zhou, Troy Peters, Peter Hatherly, Weijia Sun | CSIRO, VelSeis, Coalbed Geoscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences

In Australian coal mining areas, basalt flows can occur at or near the ground surface. These flows are usually of Tertiary age and are thickest where they have flowed down pre-existing river channels. Multiple flows may be present with unconsolidated sediments lying between. The basalts may be ....  read more


Imaging Complex Structures and Dykes Using 2-D 3-C Seismic Methods

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Author: Brian Evans, M Urosevic, C Walton | Curtin University of Technology

The objectives of this project were to develop seismic methods to detect and image complex structure such as faults, fracture systems and dykes, which will benefit underground mine operations. The project proposed to work in the two dimensional (2-D) and three component (3-C) areas, but ....  read more


Imaging Systems for Geotechnical Boreholes

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Author: Scott Thomson, S Adam | CoalBed Concepts Pty Ltd, CRC Mining and CMTE Development Pty Ltd

The objective of this project was to develop a new system for evaluating geotechnical boreholes in underground mining.  This approach was predicated on the demonstration of a commercial prototype imaging system (the Slim Borehole Scanner (SBS)) which is designed to be suitable for ....  read more


Improving coal seam model accuracy for longwall automation by in-seam borehole radar imaging and data integration

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Author: Binzhong Zhou, Iain Mason and Matthew van de Werken | CSIRO

Longwall automation depends on the development of automatic coal seam (horizon) tracking and lateral guidance systems to maintain mining only the coal seam while steering towards the desired target. It requires spatial accuracy for local changes in a horizon's depth in the order of 10 cm, ....  read more


Improving Reflection Seismic Success Through Ground Truthing

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Author: Binzhong Zhou, Peter Hatherly | CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Coalbed Geoscience

Seismic surveying, especially by the 3D method, is widely used throughout the Sydney and Bowen basins in order to delineate geological structures with the potential to affect underground coal mining. While use of the technique continues to grow, its performance has not been systematically ....  read more


In Seam Wireless Communication System

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Author: Eddie Prochon | CRCMining

CRCMining is developing a system called In Seam Wireless Drill String (ISWDS) for providing high data rate, bidirectional wireless communication between the BHA and the drill rig in the hazardous conditions of Underground In-Seam (UIS) drilling. This report details the work conducted in Phase 1 ....  read more


In-Seam Drilling Scoping Study

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Author: John Hanes | J & SD Hanes

In-Seam drilling has been recognised by underground mine operators as a high priority research area. This report seeks to draw together the concerns of those involved in in-seam drilling and provide direction as to where future research should focus.  ....  read more


In-seam Wireless Drill String Project - Phase 2

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Author: Joel Kok | Mining3

This report presents the research for a wireless survey tool that provides high data-rate, bi-directional wireless communication between the borehole assembly and the drill rig in the hazardous conditions of underground in-seam (UIS) drilling.

Phase1 (C21019) involved the research ....  read more


Integrated P-wave / PS-wave Seismic Imaging for Improved Geological Characterisation of Coal Environ

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Author: Natasha Hendrick, Steve Hearn, Shaun Strong | Velseis

Converted-wave seismic reflection is a novel seismic method that takes advantage of the fact that when a compressional (P) wave from a conventional seismic source (e.g. dynamite, mini-SOSIE) strikes a coal seam, a significant fraction of the energy reflected back to the surface will be ....  read more


Integration of Seismic Data for Mine Planning

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Author: Binzhong Zhou, Peter Hatherly, Renate Sliwa | CSIRO Exploration & Mining, CRCMining

This project sought to develop procedures for:

  • Interactive depth conversion through integrating borehole and seismic data so that seismic data can be transformed from the time domain to the depth domain.
  • Stratigraphic and coal seam attribute
 ....  read more


Intelligent Drilling Systems

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Author: Scott Thomson, S Adam | CoalBed Concepts, CRCMining

Inseam directional drilling plays an important role in Australian underground coal mining for coal seam degasification purposes. The path of an inseam borehole is also of interest from an exploration perspective but too often the geological data from inseam boreholes remains ambiguous ....  read more


Interactive Evaluation of Mine Plans with Integrated Geological Exploration Data

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Author: Guy LeBlanc Smith, Con Caris, Phil Soole | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

This report presents the application of virtual reality programming and visualisation to the integration of disparate 3D and 4D data sets that are common to the mining environment. The project arose from a recognised need to:

  1. integrate large and disparate data sets that are
 ....  read more


Interpretation of Small Scale Geological Features on Seismic Reflection Data

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Author: Binzhong Zhou, Peter Hatherly | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

This final report is timely in tat it is being published at a time when 3D seismic is being routinely used by a number of exploration groups in the Bowen.

The very readable report provides the reader with an understanding of the recent advances made in this exciting field and ....  read more


Investigation of Converted Wave Seismic Reflection for Improved Resulotuion of Coal Structures

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Author: Steve Hearn, Natasha Hendrick, John McMonagle | Velseis

Seismic reflection is widely recognised as a significant geophysical tool for remote imaging of subsurface coal deposits. The technique is now often an integral part of mine planning, with positive contributions to mine productivity and safety. However, the desire to image increasingly ....  read more


Longwall Geological Risk Minimisation Using Advanced Electromagnetic and Sonic Technologies

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Author: Scott Thomson & Duncan Thomson | CoalBed Energy Consultants

The primary objective of this project was to compare geophysical data from two different technologies, the Radio Imaging Method (RIM) and In-Seam Seismic (ISS), with a view to minimising geological risk in a longwall operation. Conceptually, data from an electromagnetic technology (RIM) should ....  read more


Magnetic Field Radar Probe for In-Line Assessment of Faults, Dykes and Other Features while In-Seam Drilling

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Author: Wayne Murray, Chris Williams, Matthew Josh, Simon Maunder, Stuart Hay, Peter Hatherly | CSIRO Telecommunications & Industrial Physics, CMTE

In-seam drilling is an integral part of mining in many underground mines and it is undertaken for gas drainage and to prove coal seam conditions. Current drilling practice allows precise survey data to be obtained as to the plan position of the hole. While this means that drills can be steered ....  read more


Maximising the Benefits from Downhole Geophysical Logs Recorded in Coal Exploration Programs

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Author: Roussos Dimitrakopoulos, Brett Larkin | University of Queensland

The aim of this project was to develop techniques and tools to maximize the amount of geological, analytical and geomechanical information geologists can derive from their downhole geophysical logs.

The study analyses the data from 21 drillholes from Anglo Coal's Moranbah North ....  read more


Optimisation of Long Hole Drilling Equipment

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Author: Ian Gray | SIMTARS

The objectives of this study were to establish the factors currently restricting long hole drilling in coal seams to 1000m, and to establish what changes in technique or equipment are necessary to reach 2000m. Data from existing boreholes were analysed using ....  read more


Qantitative Geophysical Log Interpretation for Rock Mass Characterisation

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Author: Peter Hatherly, Renate Sliwa, Roland Turner, Terry Medhurst | CSIRO Exploration & Mining, Borehole Logging Consultancy Services, Australian Mining Consultants

Geophysical borehole logging is routinely employed as part of exploration drilling in open pit and underground mining operations. Analysis of results is often empirical or based on theoretical considerations that need not relate to the actual properties of the rocks under consideration. The ....  read more


Quality Appraisal for Geophysical Borehole Logs

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Author: Peter Fullagar, Binzhong Zhou, R Turner | Fullagar Geophysics, CSIRO Exploration & Mining, Borehole Logging Consultancy Services

The aim of this project was to investigate efficient means for identifying suspect borehole logging data from hundreds or even thousands of boreholes. The intent was to classify data as acceptable, questionable, or unacceptable. The envisaged ultimate benefits of the project were

 ....  read more


Recognition of Low Throw Faults and Fracture Systems Using Seismic Data

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Author: Brian Evans | Curtin University of Technology

This report provides a general review of work performed by the Curtin University research group for a syndication of mining companies over a two year period, July 1995 to June 1997.

The Syndicate ....  read more


Seismic Diffraction Imaging for Improved Structural Detection in Complex Geological Environments

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Author: Binzhong Zhou, Renate Sliwa, Weijia Sun | CSIRO, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Rather than ignoring or suppressing seismic diffraction data, they can be retained as they are valuable for identifying small geological discontinuities such as faults, dykes and other features that cause small scatters in the subsurface. Through previous projects C22016 Enhancing Fault ....  read more


Super Model 2000 Bowen Basin

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Author: Joan Esterle, Renate Sliwa, Guy Le Blanc Smith, Joel Yago, Ray Williams, Shuxing Li, Roussos Dimitrakopoulos | CSIRO Exploration & Mining, GeoGAS, University of Queensland

The aim of the Supermodel 2000 project was to deliver a regional three-dimensional model of the Moranbah-German Creek Coal Measures along the western limb of the Bowen Basin from integrated mine-scale databases and regional basement geology. It provides a snapshot of the available data and ....  read more


Surface Seismic Syndicate

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Author: Brian Evans, M Urosevic | Curtin University

The aim of this two year research project was to develop new and improved seismic methods to image coal seams in areas where the seismic ....  read more


Use of Core Scanning and Hand Held X-ray Fluorescence Analysis in Coal Quality Assessment

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Author: Colin Ward, Sarah Kelloway, David Cohen, Christopher Marjo, David French, Irene Wainwright and Juee Vohra | University of New South Wales

This project was aimed at developing and validating new technologies for detailed non-destructive chemical analysis of cored and in-situ coal seams for the Australian coal industry, using both a laboratory-based core-scanning system (Itrax core scanner) and a hand-held field-portable X-ray ....  read more


Visualisation of 3D Seismic and Full Waveform Sonic Data

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Author: Binzhong Zhou, Peter Hatherly, Guy LeBlanc Smith, Iain Mason | CSIRO Exploration & Mining, University of Sydney

Seismic 3D surveying and full waveform sonic logging are now major new tools for geological and geotechnical evaluation. CMTE has been supporting their introduction and through this project we have worked to develop and demonstrate interactive analysis software that can be used by  ....  read more



Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C34019Longwall Bretby Cable Handling Monitoring With Fibre Optics

This project examined the potential of using fibre optic sensing tec...

C28028The Inclusion Of High Interest Native Plants In Mine Site Restoration Programs: Propagation, Translocation And Field Re-Introduction

This report synthesises over 10 years of ex situ and in si...

C27049Mine Machine Radar Sensor Integration

The aim of this project was to develop an integrated radar sensor an...


Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C34029Validation Of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) As A Rapidly Deployable Field Technology To Estimate Coal Quality

Rapid evaluation of a coal resource by in-situ characterisation dow...

C34028Guidelines For Assessment Of Geotechnically Safe And Stable Post-Mining Landforms

The purpose of this project was to develop a guidelines document as ...

C34016Elements In Coal – A Start-To-End Analysis

This project explores the fate and concentration potential of critical e...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C26016Determining The Benefits Of Online Thickener Underflow Rheology Measurements

The aim of this project is to determine how useful the rheology meas...

C33056Modelling And Control Of Classifying Cyclones

Hydrocyclones are one of the key technologies for the classification...

C28056Surface Alloying Of Centrifuge Baskets And Sieve Bends Screen Surfaces To Increase The Service Lifetime

The main objective of this project was to improve the wear resistanc...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C33066Washability And Distribution Of Sulfur And Trace Elements For Different Size And Density Fractions Of Raw Coals

Based on the hypothesis that the levels of sulfur and other toxic tr...

C34060In-Situ Investigation Of Coke Structure Formation Under Stamp Charged Coking Conditions

Stamp charged cokemaking has emerged as an effective technique to im...

C34062Improving The Classification Of Microstructure Distribution In Coke CT Images Using Deep Learning And Lineal Path Calculations

This project builds on a number of earlier projects that have helped...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C28076Selective Absorption Of Methane By Ionic Liquids (SAMIL)

This third and final stage of this project was the culmination of a ...

C29069Low-Cost Catalyst Materials For Effective VAM Catalytic Oxidation

Application of ventilation air methane (VAM) thermal oxidiser requir...

C23052Novel Stone Dust Looping Process For Ventilation Air Methane Abatement

This multi‐phase project is concerned with the mitigation of m...

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community


National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook