Underground                                       reports


Our underground health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives include strengthening ventilation and gas management technology, minimising risks from fires and explosions, advancing emergency response technologies, reducing operating costs and improving reliability of subsidence predictions.

Coal Burst (19 Reports)

Advanced Fracture Propagation Testing of Coal Measure Rocks under Dynamic Loading to Replicate Coal Burst Scenario

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Author: Babak Khadivi, Jing Li, Amin Heidarpour, Hossein Masoumi, Qianbing Zhang, Jian Zhao | Monash University

This project is aimed to address critical challenges regarding enhancing the health and safety standards in underground coal mining operation, with a particular focus on understanding of burst occurrence mechanism. The outcomes of previous ACARP projects have notably contributed to advancing ....  read more


Advances in Acoustic Logs to Predict the Stress Redistribution in Coal Strata as a Result of Degassing/Dewatering

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Author: Hamid Roshan and Hossein Masoumi | University of New South Wales and Monash University

The aim of this project is to study the effect of fluid withdrawal on stress distribution in coal. Recent advances in acoustic log analysis and analytical models as well as field and laboratory data are used to evaluate the stress redistribution caused by fluid drainage from a borehole.

 ....  read more


Application of United States Coal Burst Practical Experience/Research for Identification of Elevated Risk Domains in Australian Operations

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Author: Hamid Maleki | Maleki Technologies

Since 1995, under the support of US mining companies, the Bureau of Land Management, NIOSH and the School Institute for Trust Land Administration, significant effort has been dedicated to advance the understanding of violent failure mechanisms by identifying significant contributing factors. ....  read more


Assessment of Damage and Risk from Seismic Events in Coal Mines

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Author: Winton Gale, Stephen Meyer | SCT Operations

Seismic monitoring is typically undertaken when a mine is experiencing dynamic failure events such as coal or rock bursts, caving anomalies or rock failure associated with structural features which is causing uncertainty and difficulty during mining. The aim of the monitoring is to understand ....  read more


Coal Burst Monitoring Technology using Microseismicity – Microseismic Data Capturing and Documentation

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Author: Xun Luo, Joey Duan, Matt van de Werken | CSIRO

Coal burst is a violent collapse of the coal wall or roof in development, roadways and at the longwall face in underground coal mines. Because it occurs suddenly, with no or very little warning, coal burst is particularly dangerous to nearby mine personnel, mining equipment and infrastructure. ....  read more


Coal Micro-Fabric as a Trigger for Coal Bursts

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Author: Rhys Pitchers, Yvette Heritage, Winton Gale | SCT Operations

Research conducted project C26060 Mechanics of gas related coal bursts indicated that areas of structurally generated micro fractures have the potential to allow significantly greater gas energy to be liberated from the coal than in nonstructured coal. Under the appropriate stress and gas ....  read more


Energy, Burst Mechanics Required for Coal Bursts and Energy Release Mechanisms

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Author: Ismet Canbulat, Chengguo Zhang, John Watson, Chunchen Wei, Onur Vardar, Changbin Wang, Faham Tahmasebinia, Winton Gale | University of New South Wales, SCT Operations

Given the increasing incidence of coal bursts in Australian mines, it is necessary to develop mechanistically sound methods for assessing the risk they pose to personnel and equipment underground and methods of minimisation of their likelihood and the severity of any that occur.

 ....  read more


Forecasting coal burst risks near various types of faults, folds and dykes

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Author: Baotang Shen, Jingyu Shi, Jane Hodgkinson, Xun Luo, Joey Duan | CSIRO

Stress state and geotechnical conditions often change significantly near major geological structures (e.g. faults, shear zones, dykes), which is the cause of most major mine instabilities and/or safety hazards including coal burst, roof falls, water inrush, gas outburst. A previous project ....  read more


Ground Support Requirements in Coal Burst Prone Mines

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Author: Ismet Canbulat, Chengguo Zhang, John Watson, Chunchen Wei, Faham Tahmasebinia | University of New South Wales

As Australian coal mines progress deeper, the likelihood of coal burst increases in some areas; the current ground support system alone maybe inadequate for coal burst control in these limited areas. This project aims to assess the role and effects of a wide range of ground support elements ....  read more


Innovative Coal Burst System to Investigate the Influence of Confinement Loss and Pre-conditioning on Coal Burst Mechanism

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Author: Murat Karakus, Giang Nguyen & Selahattin Akdag | The University of Adelaide

The challenges associated with designing and operating a safe and profitable mine increase as near surface deposits are depleted and the pursuit of mineral resources is pushed deeper underground. Mining induced coal bursts pose great threats to mine safety and production. Coal bursts may ....  read more


Investigation of data processing strategy for distributed optic fiber sensing and development of methods for real-time data processing

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Author: Xun Luo, Joey Duan, Michael Lofgren, Matt van de Werken | CSIRO

CSIRO successfully demonstrated that distributed optic fiber sensing (DOFS) technology can become a reliable and efficient tool for microseismic monitoring in longwall coal mining and have identified that a big challenge for DOFS application in coal mining is data handling. DOFS can record ....  read more


Mechanics of Gas Related Coal Bursts in Mining

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Author: Winton Gale | SCT Operations

Rock and coal fracturing is common about roadways, particularly under the influence of elevated stresses, either tectonic or related to mining abutment stress. Shear fracture is very common, however, it is very uncommon that the coal is propelled from the face or ribs as a result of fracture ....  read more


Modelling Of Dynamic Fracture Mechanisms For Improved Strata Control Design and Coal Burst Assessment

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Author: Jan Nemcik, Gaetano Venticinque, Shivakuma Karekal | The University of Wollongong

The success of mining operations is heavily dependent upon controlling the fractured ground especially in coal mines where complex sedimentary strata exist. In nature, mechanisms of rock fracture are a dynamic phenomenon that up to now has not been fully understood nor computationally modelled ....  read more


Monitoring Stability of Roadway and the Longwall Face for Coal Burst Risk Management Using Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing Techniques

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Author: Xun Luo, Joey Duan, Ludovic Ricard, Matt van de Werken | CSIRO

In this project, the feasibility of using distributed optic fiber sensing (DOFS) technique was investigated for microseismic monitoring in coal mining. The investigation involved in theory study, laboratory tests and a mine site experiment.

Results from the laboratory experiments have ....  read more


New Outburst Risk Determination Measures Along With Data Gathering and Analysis for Coal Burst Assessment

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Author: Ian Gray, Jeff Wood, Tim Gibbons, Xiaoli Zhao | Sigra

Bursts are events that expel material at velocity at the time of ejection. This is usually coal but is sometimes rock. Unlike falls where the velocity is gained through gravitational acceleration, the sources of energy that drive the material outwards are either strain energy of the rock or ....  read more


Predict Stress State and Geotechnical Conditions Near Major Geological Structures Using Microseismic Technology and Distinct Element Modelling

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Author: Baotang Shen, Bongani Dlamini, Lu Chen, Yi Duan, Xun Luo,Matt Van de Werken, Onur Vardar, Ismet Canbulat | CSIRO, The University of New South Wales

Stress state and geotechnical conditions often change significantly near major geological structures which is the cause of most major mine instabilities and/or safety hazards including coal burst, roof falls, water inrush, gas outburst etc. This project aimed to develop an integrated method of ....  read more


Review of Australian and International Coal Burst Experience and Control Technologies

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Author: Ismet Canbulat, Chengguo Zhang, Bruce Hebblewhite, John Watson, Rob Thomas, Baotang Shen, Xun Luo and Winton Gale | University of New South Wales

Coal burst events are rare in the Australian coal industry. However, their occurrence appears to be increasing in some limited  deeper mines. Understanding such phenomena in the Australian industry is primarily qualitative and has previously been based on overseas experience. Although ....  read more


The Young’s Moduli, Poisson’s Ratios and Poroelastic Coefficients of Coals

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Author: Ian Gray | Sigra

This report describes the measurement of coal (and rock) properties using core in laboratory tests where the axial and radial (confining) stresses and the fluid pressures are varied. The results derived from this work show quite different material behaviour to those generally considered to ....  read more


True Triaxial Strength of Coal Measure Rocks and its Impact on Roadway Stability and Coal Burst Assessment

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Author: Winton Gale, Gaetano Venticinque and Mahdi Zoorabadi | SCT Operations

Rocks in the ground are subject to a range of stresses. The stresses are defined on the basis of the three principle stresses (σ1,2,3) and shear stresses (τ).  In coal mines the rock and coal are subject to fracture (failure) on a regular basis during development driveage and ....  read more



Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C34019Longwall Bretby Cable Handling Monitoring With Fibre Optics

This project examined the potential of using fibre optic sensing tec...

C28028The Inclusion Of High Interest Native Plants In Mine Site Restoration Programs: Propagation, Translocation And Field Re-Introduction

This report synthesises over 10 years of ex situ and in si...

C27049Mine Machine Radar Sensor Integration

The aim of this project was to develop an integrated radar sensor an...


Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C34029Validation Of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) As A Rapidly Deployable Field Technology To Estimate Coal Quality

Rapid evaluation of a coal resource by in-situ characterisation dow...

C34028Guidelines For Assessment Of Geotechnically Safe And Stable Post-Mining Landforms

The purpose of this project was to develop a guidelines document as ...

C34016Elements In Coal – A Start-To-End Analysis

This project explores the fate and concentration potential of critical e...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C26016Determining The Benefits Of Online Thickener Underflow Rheology Measurements

The aim of this project is to determine how useful the rheology meas...

C33056Modelling And Control Of Classifying Cyclones

Hydrocyclones are one of the key technologies for the classification...

C28056Surface Alloying Of Centrifuge Baskets And Sieve Bends Screen Surfaces To Increase The Service Lifetime

The main objective of this project was to improve the wear resistanc...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C33066Washability And Distribution Of Sulfur And Trace Elements For Different Size And Density Fractions Of Raw Coals

Based on the hypothesis that the levels of sulfur and other toxic tr...

C34060In-Situ Investigation Of Coke Structure Formation Under Stamp Charged Coking Conditions

Stamp charged cokemaking has emerged as an effective technique to im...

C34062Improving The Classification Of Microstructure Distribution In Coke CT Images Using Deep Learning And Lineal Path Calculations

This project builds on a number of earlier projects that have helped...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C28076Selective Absorption Of Methane By Ionic Liquids (SAMIL)

This third and final stage of this project was the culmination of a ...

C29069Low-Cost Catalyst Materials For Effective VAM Catalytic Oxidation

Application of ventilation air methane (VAM) thermal oxidiser requir...

C23052Novel Stone Dust Looping Process For Ventilation Air Methane Abatement

This multi‐phase project is concerned with the mitigation of m...

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community


National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook