ACARP ACARP ACARP ACARP
Open Cut

Optimal Design and Monitoring for Highwall Mining

Open Cut » Highwall Mining

Published: December 01Project Number: C8033

Get ReportAuthor: Mary Fama, Baotang Shen, P Maconochie | CSIRO Exploration & Mining, Geotek Solutions

This is the final report for the ACARP research project, C8033, "Optimal Design and Monitoring of Layout Stability for Highwall Mining". The aim of the report is to provide general guidelines for highwall mining design. The guidelines will help guide mining engineers through the process of feasibility evaluation to final execution of highwall mining in their mining lease. Purely economic matters, however, are not addressed. A number of new tools for feasibility studies, including the Highwall Mining Index (HMI), the Auger Mining Index and Percentage Extraction estimate are presented in the report.

The key components of this report include:

  • Feasibility study. The geotechnical evaluation to determine whether the site is suitable for highwall mining. A highwall mining index method is presented to help the decision making process in Chapter 2.

  • Site investigation. If the site is considered likely to be a suitable site for highwall mining, geological and geotechnical investigation in the mining reserve (e.g., drilling, highwall mapping, highwall hazard identification etc.) includes the gathering of data for layout design. The new data can also refine the results of the feasibility study. Guidelines for conducting the site investigation are outlined in Chapter 3.

  • Span stability assessment. Evaluation of the stability of the entry spans, which are unsupported, to ensure the success of mining. This needs to be investigated before the commencement of mining. Assessment tools and methodology are presented in Chapter 4.

  • Layout design. A layout design to specify pillar size and whether barrier pillars are to be left between panels. An optimal layout design will maximise the recovery whilst minimising the risk of unacceptable instability. Pillar design tools and a new panel stability theory are presented to help in the evaluation in Chapter 5.

  • Design verification against past experience. A number of panel/roof instabilities have been recorded in the past. A selection of these have been back-analysed and the major causes of the instabilities summarised in Chapter 6. Lessons learned from these studies may be used to provide a final check of the design for the current site.

  • Mining operation and feed-back. Monitoring of the stability of the highwall, spans and pillars during mining are critically important to a continuous, smooth mining operation. After mining operations have commenced with the designed layout, mining difficulties may occur if unexpected ground conditions are encountered. This may necessitate a change in layout design. Guidelines for conducting monitoring and information feed-back during mining are provided in Chapter 7.

    The final report is presented in a user-friendly web style format. Most of the new tools developed within this project, including the Highwall Mining Index (HMI) and Percentage Extraction estimate, are provided in interactive forms. These interactive tools make it easy for users to perform their own evaluation of a site for highwall mining.

Underground

Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C26061The Young’S Moduli, Poisson’S Ratios And Poroelastic Coefficients Of Coals

This report describes the measurement of coal (and rock) properties ...

C24015 Assessment Of Convergence Based Roof Support Design For Longwall Abutment Loads

The aim of Stage two of project C24015 was to develop a roof support...

C25072New Approaches To Mine Gas Analysis And Ratios

The spontaneous combustion of coal remains a hazard in underground c...

Underground

Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C26022Real-Time Prediction Of Coal Top Through Guided Borehole Radar Wave Imaging For Open Cut Blast-Hole Drilling

Damage to the tops of coal seams caused by incorrect blast stand-off...

C26027Using An Ecotoxicological Approach To Validate The DGT Technique For The Measurement Of Bioavailable Metal Concentrations

This project builds on the opportunity identified through Project C2...

C25039Prediction Of Long-Term Salt Generation From Coal Spoils

The release of salts from spoil piles has the potential to affect su...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C250083D Flotation Of Fine Particles

In this project a process for the continuous, selective agglomeratio...

C20052Full Scale Gravity - Desliming Using Cascading REFLUX Classifiers

Considerable quantities of fine coal are disposed of as part of the ...

C26007 Revised Dustiness And DEM Test Method (Update Of AS4156.6) Part 2:Preparation

In 2015 project C23054 investigated and reviewed the Australian Stan...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C25045Stage Two - Assessment Of In Situ High-Temperature Strength Of Cokes

Stage I of this project established a reliable and repeatable proces...

C27003Review Of ACARP Research To Support Marketing Of Australian Thermal Coal

In this project, researchers pinpointed issues relating to the use o...

C25044Trace Elements In Coal; Status Of Test Methods In Use And Their Applicability

 STAGE 1 REPORT

The key objectives of this stage...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C27008Selective Absorption Of Methane By Ionic Liquids

The connection of a ventilation air methane (VAM) abatement plant di...

C24061Proof-Of-Concept Photocatalytic Destruction Of Methane For Coal Mining Fugitive Emissions Abatement

Australia's fugitive emissions in 2015 were 41 Mt CO2-e (representin...

C23052Novel Stone Dust Looping Process For Ventilation Air Methane Abatement - Phase 3

This multi‐phase project is concerned with the mitigation of m...

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community

NERDDC

National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook

NERDDC