Coal Preparation

Vol 1. Experimental Validation of a Fundamental Model of Coal Spirals Vol 2. Handbook and Reference Source for Plant Metallurgists & Designers

Coal Preparation » Gravity Separation

Published: December 98Project Number: C4046

Get ReportAuthor: Peter Holtham | JKMRC

Volume 1

A Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the spiral has been under development by the Centre for Advanced Numerical Computation in Engineering and Science (CANCES), at the University of New South Wales, since 1992. The objective of this part of the ACARP project was to generate the detailed measurement needed to validate the modelling of a specific coal spiral, the Mineral Technologies LD9. Despite being a superseded model, this spiral was chosen as a large body of experimental data was already in existence, and an LD9 was available at the JKMRC for the experimental work.

This volume describes the experimental work carried out which has succeeded in providing detailed primary and secondary velocity data on the LD9 spiral at feed rates of 4, 6 and 8 m3 h-1. The velocity data covers the full depth of the flow, as well as the free surface, and is the most comprehensive yet available anywhere. Video-based Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure fluid velocities within the flow, and non-wettable lycopodium powder and high speed photography to measure the free surface velocity.

The data are compared with the most recent CFD model developed at CANCES using the commercial software package Fluent (v4). Unlike all other spiral models to date, only trough geometry and feed flow rates are required as model inputs. The comparison show an excellent measure of agreement between the experimental and computed results in terms of fluid primary velocity, secondary velocity and depth profile.

Volume 2

The purpose of this volume is to provide coal preparation plant designers and operators with a concise source of practical information about coal spirals drawn from this and other recent research projects and associate site investigations. It is organised into 5 sections:

Section 1          provides a brief history of the introduction of the spiral for coal preparation applications.
Section 2         
summarises the operational aspects of spirals based on JKMRC experience, and the experience of many spiral plant users.
Section 3          describes briefly how the performance of a coal spiral can be determined.
Section 4          summarises briefly the current state of the art in spiral modelling.
Section 5          presents a series of appendices;

  • Appendix 5.1 describes the construction of spiral loading curves.
  • Appendix 5.2 covers the fitting of smooth partition curves to raw data using Solver in EXCEL.
  • Appendix 5.3 describes how simple modelling using partition curves can be used to investigate minor changes in operating conditions.
  • Appendix 5.4 tabulates the coal spirals currently offered by Australian manufacturers and distributors.
  • Appendix 5.5 provides a comprehensive bibliography of papers, theses and books that deal with spirals in all areas of mineral and coal processing.


Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.


Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C19024Establishing Ecologically Sustainable Mine Water Release Criteria In Seasonally Flowing Streams

Extreme rainfall conditions in the Fitzroy Catchment over an approxi...

C25030Coal Mine Open Pit Final Void Closure And Relinquishment - Addressing Uncertainty In Coal Mine Environmental Planning

This report addresses uncertainties faced by coal mine operators whe...

C27046Estimation Of True Deformation Vector From Slope Radar Monitoring

Slope deformation radar monitors are now widely used in open cut coa...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C27004Improving Coal Flotation With Oscillatory Air Supply

This report provides detailed information on coal flotation with os...

C25018Improving Solids Recovery And Moisture Reduction In Ultrafine Coal Dewatering

This report provides detailed information on fine coal dewatering in...

C27028Lab Froth Flotation Testing Guide With Coal Quality

Correct outcomes from laboratory froth flotation testing in coal bor...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C26039Nanoporosity In Cokes: Their Origin, Control And Influence On CO2 Reactivity

This project using the outcomes of previous project C24060, examine...

C28063A Comprehensive Technical Review Of High-Efficiency Low-Emission (HELE) Pulverised Coal Combustion Technologies For Power Generation

Research and development has been undertaken worldwide to realise co...

C28064Carbon Structure Transformation During Coking Of Australian Coking Coals: Better Understanding The Coke Formation

Carbon structures of coke that are formed during the plastic layer a...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C28076Selective Absorption Of Methane By Ionic Liquids (SAMIL) - Phase 2 Demonstration In A Packed Bed Reactor

An alternative approach to high temperature oxidation of ventilation...

C26004CFD Modelling Of Reverse Thermal Oxidisers For VAM Abatement - CFD Modelling Of Fixed-Bed RTO Devices

The project is part of a larger multi‐phase program of study a...

C27058Technological Assessment Of A Recycle Reactor For VAM Abatement

Underground coal mining emits high volumes of methane, diluted in ve...

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community


National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook