ACARP ACARP ACARP ACARP
Open Cut

Dozertrak

Open Cut » Coal Extraction

Published: March 95Project Number: C3056

Get ReportAuthor: David Hall, J Keays | HNK Technologies

The DOZERTRAK system uses a laser guided tracking theodolite or GPS to determine the position of a moving target attached to a dozer. The positional information is combined with other sensors and processed by an on-board computer to determine the position of the cutting edge of the blade.  The computer screen dynamically displays the dozer blade on a shaded perspective view of the design surface in real time. Operators can work day or night without the use of surveyors as they can at all times see the position of the blade in relation to the final required surface. Alternatively, the display can be monitored on-site and the dozer operator given instruction by radio.

DOZERTRAK can reduce the inefficiencies that are brought about by the operator relying on a third party to instruct him as to height or tolerances to the finished surfaces. The more complicated the final surface, the more inefficiency prevails, particularly in the rehabilitation of spoil heaps when working on undulating surfaces.

The system when applied to the mining industry will increase Australia's overseas competitiveness by increasing the efficiency of the mining process and reducing the cost of land rehabilitation. Additional domestic benefits will accrue through more efficient practices in road works, dam construction, laying of fibre optic cables and other general earth works. Specifically the applications relevant to the coal industry are:

  • Reclamation of spoil heaps
  • Removal of overburden
  • Ripping and stripping of thin partings and seams
  • Defining boundaries of coal products in stock piles
  • Road construction
  • Dam construction

 

Objectives

Earlier testing had confirmed the theoretical aspects of DOZERTRAK. Testing was now required of a fully functional prototype in the field to test the components and their integration as a system.

It was always recognised that the success of DOZERTRAK was dependent on the successful transfer of technology to the mining industry through acceptance of mine managers and machine operators. Office and surveying equipment on board the dozer had to withstand the rugged environment that earth moving machinery operates in. Specifically the objectives were:

  • to build a fully functioning prototype of DOZERTRAK;
  • to fit the prototype on a Dozer and put it to work;
  • to identify modifications required for a commercial product;
  • to identify requirements from the industry as to the specifications of the final product;
  • to compare the Tracking Theodolite against an advanced GPS device;
  • to investigate the ability if the Tracking Theodolite or GPS to track a target in real time;
  • to ascertain the suitability of high tech equipment being used in the rugged environment that the earth moving industry has to work in;
  • to evaluate the ease with which a Tracking Theodolite or GPS can communicate with a remote computer situated on earth moving equipment.

 

Conclusions

DOZERTRAK is well suited to rehabilitation work, even at this early stage, with current accuracy achieved.  Specific outcomes were:

  • The system works and provides an easy to read and understand visual display for the dozer operator. 
  • The accuracy obtained in the initial trials surpasses anything that is currently available for dynamic real-time operator assistance. 
  • Operators quickly assimilated the method required to work with DOZERTRAK and showed great enthusiasm towards the concept and application. 
  • A dynamic accuracy of + / - 150mm recorded. 
  • Tighter accuracy's are achievable with modifications to the tracking device and subsequent software changes. 
  • DOZERTRAK will have an economic sound future in the recovery of coal. 
  • Installation and set-up processes were verified and a better understanding of the procedures required to simplify these operations were gained. 
  • There is insufficient room in the dozer cabin for the full computer and screen. The computer will have to be separated from the screen and mounted in a non intrusive position on the dozer. 
  • Vibration levels within the dozer cabin indicate that either special computer mounts must be developed or that the computer hard discs be replaced by solid state ram.

This project outlines in broad terms a proposal to a mine site to participate in a R&D project that will have significant cost savings, whilst at the same time assist in the development of technology that will benefit the mining industry.

The proposal has significant capability to be altered to suit individual mine situations, provided the project aim can be achieved and the requirements of the R&D Tax Incentive scheme can be met.

This meant that by the early eighties, commercial interest in GPS begun to blossom. At this point the system was only partially implemented and so did not provide 100% coverage. As the USDOD experimented the system would be switched off or malfunction regularly.

Transit systems having set the pace for commercial and even personal leisure use of satellite navigation, GPS development expanded rapidly. By the mid eighties, an ever increasing range of commercial GPS receivers were becoming available.

These were still limited by the partial implementation of the system. Placement of satellites into orbit continued with a later generation of satellites. By 1990, although not fully implemented, the system was sufficiently reliable to make general commercial and even personal use viable.

Underground

Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C28026Measuring The Height Of Fracturing Above Extracted Longwall Panels To Improve Reliability Of Groundwater Impact Predictions

Longwall mining is a mining method widely used in the Australian und...

C25059Development Of An Intrinsically Safe, Integrated Wireless Communications Network With A Distributed Array Of Geotechnical Sensors

For over 20 years, SCT Operations (SCT) have provided a range of ind...

C26051An On-Machine Bolting And Geotechnical Monitoring System

The primary objective of this project was to investigate how laser s...

Underground

Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C27046Estimation Of True Deformation Vector From Slope Radar Monitoring

Slope deformation radar monitors are now widely used in open cut coa...

C29003Wear Debris Removal From Dragline Commutators

The original aim of this project was to establish a method of removi...

C28037Local Scale Dispersion Modelling To Support ACARP Emission Factors

There remains significant concern in the industry regarding the accu...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C27032Coal Grain Analysis Applications Handbook

This Handbook sets out recommended practices for using coal grain an...

C26012Improved Flotation Recovery Via Controlling Froth Behaviour

There is no real-time measurement for coal flotation performance, ma...

C27012Towards Better Fine Coal Classification

It is well recognised that the efficient classification of fine coal...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C26039Nanoporosity In Cokes: Their Origin, Control And Influence On CO2 Reactivity

This project using the outcomes of previous project C24060, examine...

C28063A Comprehensive Technical Review Of High-Efficiency Low-Emission (HELE) Pulverised Coal Combustion Technologies For Power Generation

Research and development has been undertaken worldwide to realise co...

C28064Carbon Structure Transformation During Coking Of Australian Coking Coals: Better Understanding The Coke Formation

Carbon structures of coke that are formed during the plastic layer a...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C26004CFD Modelling Of Reverse Thermal Oxidisers For VAM Abatement - CFD Modelling Of Fixed-Bed RTO Devices

The project is part of a larger multi‐phase program of study a...

C27058Technological Assessment Of A Recycle Reactor For VAM Abatement

Underground coal mining emits high volumes of methane, diluted in ve...

C27008Selective Absorption Of Methane By Ionic Liquids

The connection of a ventilation air methane (VAM) abatement plant di...

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community

NERDDC

National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook

NERDDC