Technical Market Support

Stage Two - Assessment of In Situ High-Temperature Strength of Cokes

Technical Market Support » Metallurgical Coal

Published: November 18Project Number: C25045

Get ReportAuthor: Pramod Koshy, Michael Drew, Hannah Lomas, Wen-Fan Chen, Sushil Gupta and CC Sorrell | University of New South Wales and Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation

Stage I of this project established a reliable and repeatable process for mechanical testing at high temperatures using facilities at ANSTO. Three cokes were tested in Stage I and II, namely Coke 1 (High Strength High CSR coke), Coke 2 (Low CSR 1, intermediate cold strengths), and Coke 3 (Low CSR 2, lower cold strength and lower CSR). In Stage I, high CSR coke (Coke 1) samples displayed significantly greater strengths at higher temperatures in comparison to room temperature. This behaviour was attributed to increased plasticity of the cokes owing to mineralogical and microstructural transformations, including in situ graphitisation at high temperatures.

In Stage II, similar tests were done on two low CSR cokes (Coke 2 and Coke 3). These cokes showed similarities in terms of mineralogical data; however, their microtextural characteristics were significantly different, with Coke 3 showing an unexpectedly high volume of IMDC. In terms of mechanical properties, at room temperature, Coke 2 and Coke 3 fractured via expected brittle failure. The average strength for Coke 2 was slightly higher than that observed for Coke 3; these values were in a similar range to Coke 1. At high temperatures, both low CSR cokes (Coke 2 and Coke 3) showed significantly higher strengths in comparison to the values observed at room temperature. This behaviour was similar to what was observed for high CSR (Coke 1). However, the major difference was that these cokes showed a decrease or minor change in strength with increase in the test temperature from 1400°C to 1550°C, with a significant increase in strength with further increase to 1700°C. This is different from what was observed for Coke 1 (High CSR) which showed highest strengths at 1400°C and a decrease in strengths with further heat treatment temperature. The values were on average quite similar for both Coke 2 and Coke 3 (Low CSR) for the different test temperatures. With regard to the microstructural and mineralogical changes, there was again increased graphitisation for both cokes with increasing test temperatures, with the extent being greater for Coke 3 (Low CSR 2). The RMDC fractions showed increasing degradation with test temperature with the fracture dominated by cracking at the RMDC and RMDC-IMDC interface. IMDC degradation and cracking was also seen at the higher temperatures. In addition to graphitisation, SiC formation and reduced iron formation was observed both mineralogically and microstructurally within both coke samples.

Based on the figures above, it is quite clear that the strengths seen at high temperatures are quite independent of the CSR values. The two cokes with low CSR (Cokes 2 and 3) showed the highest strengths at both 1400°C and 1700°C. All three cokes showed similar values at 1550°C. These results are contradictory to expected trends and showcase the need for understanding the mechanisms of strength evolution of cokes at high temperatures.


Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C21013Improving Cavity Prediction On Longwall Faces Through A Combination Of Reliable Convergence, Canopy Attitude And Leg Pressure Monitoring

Most Australian coal mines have shield leg pressure monitoring in real t...

C24014Distributed Acoustic Conveyor Monitoring

CRC Mining have investigated the application of fibre optic Distribu...

C25054Distributed Acoustic Conveyor Monitoring - Phase 2

This project is phase 2 of the distributed acoustic sensing project ...


Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C23053A Study Of Sustainability And Profitability Of Grazing On Mine Rehabilitated Land In The Upper Hunter NSW

This study was initiated by the Upper Hunter Mining Dialogue (UHMD) ...

C25035Coal Subsurface Mapping For Open Cut Selective Mining

A reliable coal seam sensing system is required to improve the produ...

C23025Coal Pit Lake Closure By River Flow Through: Risks And Opportunities

In 2011, the river diversion channel around Lake Kepwari, a former o...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C26007 Revised Dustiness And DEM Test Method (Update Of AS4156.6) Part 2:Preparation

In 2015 project C23054 investigated and reviewed the Australian Stan...

C22033Advanced Control And Optimisation Of DMC Operation

The objective of this project was to develop, implement and demonstr...

C24045Adaptation Of Coal Grain Analysis To Improve Flotation Yield Estimation

Yield estimation from resource data is notoriously difficult. Facto...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C25045Stage Two - Assessment Of In Situ High-Temperature Strength Of Cokes

Stage I of this project established a reliable and repeatable proces...

C25044Trace Elements In Coal; Status Of Test Methods In Use And Their Applicability


The key objectives of this stage...

C25042Mechanistic Model Of Coke Development In A Coke Oven Situation

The standard approach to evaluate the potential of coals or blends t...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C24061Proof-Of-Concept Photocatalytic Destruction Of Methane For Coal Mining Fugitive Emissions Abatement

Australia's fugitive emissions in 2015 were 41 Mt CO2-e (representin...

C23052Novel Stone Dust Looping Process For Ventilation Air Methane Abatement - Phase 3

This multi‐phase project is concerned with the mitigation of m...

C19054VAM Enrichment With A Two-Stage Adsorption Process

Treatment of ventilation air methane (VAM) with cost-effective technolog...

Mine Site Greenhouse Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community


National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook