Technical Market Support

Implications of Coking Conditions on CSR

Technical Market Support » Metallurgical Coal

Published: February 15Project Number: C22039

Get ReportAuthor: Philip Bennett, Medini Wimalaratne, Lauren Johnson and James Bottle | ALS Coal

Coking is one of the main contributors to the quality of the resultant coke and therefore will influence the CSR of the coke. Laboratories worldwide use their own devised methodology for coke making, which is cause for concern since CSR results cannot be compared without a measure of error. Therefore, there is a need for the Australian coal industry to understand the implications of coking conditions on potential differences in coke quality when using different bench or pilot scale methods to produce coke for testing.


In the first stage of this project three Australian coals were selected based on their differences in rank, these were a high volatile soft coking coal (B), typical prime hard coking coal (A) and a low volatile semi hard coking coal (C). The coals were coked in ALS Coal's small scale coke oven using the ALS Coal standard conditions, which has a high heating rate and 0.5 hour of soak time at 900ºC. The coals were also coked at two lower heating rates to 900ºC. At each of these heating rates the soak time was 0 and 1 hour. The first stage was reported by Wimalaratne and Bennett (2013).


In the second stage of this project three additional coals (D, E and K) were examined. Coals D and E were tested under the same conditions as in stage 1 but also at bulk densities of 690, 815 and 900 kg/m3. Coal K was tested under limited coking conditions and at bulk densities of 690 and 815 kg/m3.


The resultant coke was stabilised using a modified Micum test before the I Drum test, the same drum test used for the CSR determination, and the porosity of the coke was determined on the unreacted coke. The NSC Reactivity test was conducted on the stabilised coke to determine the CRI and CSR.


In addition, the method of processing the coke prior to testing, e.g. degree of stabilisation, was also examined in this project using data from ACARP Project C23056.


This project has clearly demonstrated that coking conditions do impact on the CSR of the coke produced. The heating rate when the coal undergoes plastic deformation was found to be a key process variable that impacts on coke quality. It is expected that for most coals the coking conditions influence the microstructure of the coke via variations in the heating rate at the time of plastic layer formation. Due to the design of the ALS 8kg small scale coke oven the full range of different heating rates that would occur in the various designs of small scale coke ovens used around the world cannot be easily tested. A better determination of the influence of coking rate on the heating rates at different positions within the current small scale oven will provide a better basis to clarify how these heating rates may impact of coke formation. This will require more detailed temperature measurements during the coking tests. This understanding of how coking conditions coupled with appropriate modelling, such as that being undertaken by CSRIO, of the different ovens used by organisations around the world should provide the Australian coal industry the tools required to interpret the results from different organisations.


The results of this study clearly show the inherent strength of the coke has a strong influence on the resulting CSR. A better understanding of the breakage characteristics of a small scale coke before the NSC Reactivity test is required to allow for the interpretation of CSR on cokes produced under different coking conditions. This understanding will assist in the recommendation of standard procedures for the coking and processing before NSC Reactivity testing of coke produced at small scale for determination of coke quality. The breakage characteristics of coke produced in smaller coke ovens (less than 20 kg charge) is being studied in ACARP project C23056.


Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C27052Site Trial And Demonstration Of Integrated Forward And Reverse Osmosis For Mine Water Reuse

The forward osmosis (FO) process, also known as direct osmosis, is a...

C28022Development Of A Simple Rotary Steerable System For Underground Inseam Drilling

The purpose of this project was to complete the design and testing o...

C21002Measurement And Reporting Of Fugitive Emissions From Underground Coal Mines

The National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Act 2007 (Act), the ...


Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C28034Mining Equipment Human Factors Design For Workforce Diversity

The objectives of the project were to:

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C27025Quantifying The Step-Change Benefit Of Reflux Flotation Cell Circuits

The objective of this project was to quantify the value proposition ...

C24047Characterisation Of Pressure (Hyperbaric) Filter Performance

Hyperbaric disc filter technology has been used to dewater fine coal...

C28058Phase Two Development Of A Low Cost Online Measurement Of Particle Size And Density For Diagnostics Across The Fine Coal Circuit (Particle Profiler)

This project is based around the development of a prototype system (...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C26039Nanoporosity In Cokes: Their Origin, Control And Influence On CO2 Reactivity

This project using the outcomes of previous project C24060, examine...

C28063A Comprehensive Technical Review Of High-Efficiency Low-Emission (HELE) Pulverised Coal Combustion Technologies For Power Generation

Research and development has been undertaken worldwide to realise co...

C28064Carbon Structure Transformation During Coking Of Australian Coking Coals: Better Understanding The Coke Formation

Carbon structures of coke that are formed during the plastic layer a...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C28076Selective Absorption Of Methane By Ionic Liquids (SAMIL) - Phase 2 Demonstration In A Packed Bed Reactor

An alternative approach to high temperature oxidation of ventilation...

C26004CFD Modelling Of Reverse Thermal Oxidisers For VAM Abatement - CFD Modelling Of Fixed-Bed RTO Devices

The project is part of a larger multi‐phase program of study a...

C27058Technological Assessment Of A Recycle Reactor For VAM Abatement

Underground coal mining emits high volumes of methane, diluted in ve...

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community


National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook