Open Cut

Tyre Related Accidents and Incidents - A Study with Recommendations to improve Tyre & Rim Maintenance and Operational Safety of Rubber Tyred Earthmover Equipment

Open Cut » Health and Safety

Published: May 07Project Number: C15046

Get ReportAuthor: Tilman Rasche, Tom Klinge | Klinge & Co

Tyre, rims and wheel assemblies are safety critical items which must be maintained and operated correctly to provide a safe working environment.

Unfortunately less than adequate (LTA) awareness of ‘off the road’ (OTR) tyre and rim related hazards, and lack of application of correct and proven approaches to deal with these hazards, in both the maintenance and operations areas continue to cause tyre and rim related accidents and incidents across the industry, some of them fatal.

This review has shown that OTR tyre maintenance and service work in particular is a high risk activity as it involves working with a number of high potential energy and hazard sources. At the immediate work interface, tyre maintenance by its nature requires the tyre serviceman to use compressed air to inflate tyre assemblies, use heavy manual and hydraulic tooling such as very large vehicle jacks and various other equipment, often air over hydraulic to break apart wheel assemblies and utilise bulky tyre handlers to manipulate the very large and heavy earthmover tyres and rims, to mention a few hazards that have played part in the causation of many incidents and accidents. Inflated tyre assemblies both off and on vehicles pose another important set of hazards.

One of the key differences between passenger and highway transport industry tyre maintenance, and maintenance required for OTR tyre assemblies, apart from physical differences, is that OTR tyre and rim assemblies are in the most part ‘multi component’ assemblies. As such they consist of the tyre, a rim or wheel base and its components -flange rings, bead seat band, O-ring, and lockring, while passenger and non OTR tyre assemblies are single piece, i.e. consist of a tyre mounted to a single piece rim. Attachment of the OTR assembly to the vehicle is either achieved through wheel nuts/studs for tyre/wheel assemblies, or cleat type/wedges/ wheel nut systems for rim/ tyre assemblies. OTR rim manufacturers offer several designs all of which, as a critical attribute rely on the correct selection/ matching, fitment of all components and inflation to considerably higher inflation pressures compared to passenger tyres, to deliver the overall integrity of the assembly ‘system’.

Given the criticality of correct fitment, and the much higher inflation pressures, working with OTR rim/wheel assembly systems carries much higher risks than working with passenger and
truck tyres where risks have largely been ‘designed out’ through the ongoing evolution and improvement to large volume production passenger and trucking vehicles .

Examination of the data and actual or potential injury outcome suggests that OTR tyre and rim related work results in a disproportionately high incidence, larger than 80%, of fatal or potential fatal outcomes for the personnel involved requiring strict controls at the management and team level, and by the individual carrying out the task.

The risk of sustaining severe or fatal injuries is further amplified in that any damage to OTR tyres and rims can often not be readily identified, which if not observed/corrected, will result in a safety issue. Risks here do not only expose tyre maintenance personnel, but also operations personnel. Operation of a mining vehicle with incorrectly fitted or damaged OTR tyres and rims, and operations outside the tyres design operating envelope is extremely hazardous and will continue to cause incidents and high consequence accidents.

This review has shown that 51% of incidents and accidents occur during, or are based in ‘LTA tyre and rim related maintenance’, followed by ‘LTA awareness, competence and behaviour’ (17%), ‘LTA operations, crisis and emergency management’ (each contributing 8%), and ‘LTA design, construction and commissioning’ (7%).

Based on these statistics, a number of recommendations are offered which, if implemented, should assist in making working with tyre and rim assemblies safer.


Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C26070Industrialisation Of Proof Of Concept Wall-Flow DOC + Filter System

The need to protect workers from diesel particulate matter (DPM) had...

C26006Coal Burst Monitoring Technology Using Microseismicity – Microseismic Data Capturing And Documentation

Coal burst is a violent collapse of the coal wall or roof in develop...

C20038Standardised Subsidence Information Management System

As an empirically-based discipline of engineering/science, subsidenc...


Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C27046Estimation Of True Deformation Vector From Slope Radar Monitoring

Slope deformation radar monitors are now widely used in open cut coa...

C29003Wear Debris Removal From Dragline Commutators

The original aim of this project was to establish a method of removi...

C28037Local Scale Dispersion Modelling To Support ACARP Emission Factors

There remains significant concern in the industry regarding the accu...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C6046Optimising Coal Fragmentation For Improved Recovery

Uncontrolled fragmentation, in particular that resulting in the gene...

C25019Adaptation Of Coal Grain Analysis To Improve Flotation Yield Estimation

This project involved sampling of full-scale flotation circuits at ...

C27033Comprehensive Flotation Model Using CGA Particle Surface Composition

The aim of this project was to adapt existing particle based flotat...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C24057Using CGA To Investigate The Links Between Inertinite Fusibility And Coke Structure

Previous projects C16047 and C20008 identified some coals from diffe...

C27036Improved Understanding Of Coke Quality Using 3D Immersive Visualisation And Statistical Characterisation Of Microstructure Properties

This project carried out an explorative study into the use of a 3D v...

C27047Combustion Characteristics Of Australian Export Thermal Coal Using Advanced Imaging Techniques

During pulverised fuel combustion, coal particles are rapidly pyroly...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C26004CFD Modelling Of Reverse Thermal Oxidisers For VAM Abatement - CFD Modelling Of Fixed-Bed RTO Devices

The project is part of a larger multi‐phase program of study a...

C27058Technological Assessment Of A Recycle Reactor For VAM Abatement

Underground coal mining emits high volumes of methane, diluted in ve...

C27008Selective Absorption Of Methane By Ionic Liquids

The connection of a ventilation air methane (VAM) abatement plant di...

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community


National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook