ACARP ACARP ACARP ACARP

Research Funding

ACARP seeks research proposals that address key industry problems on an annual basis. The announcement seeking research proposals will be made in The Australian newspaper on Saturday, 1 April 2017.

The project priorities for 2017 and a Newsletter detailing the same is available.

ACARP will fund projects that lead to improvements in safety standards and performance, a reduction in the environmental impacts of mining and coal utilisation, a reduction in the mine operating cost and technical support to marketing of coal.

The categories to which the 2017 categories related and for which submissions were sought are:

Closing Date

The closing date for proposals for 2017 is Wednesday, 3rd May.

How to Apply for Funding

Examination of the ACARP 2017 calendar together with the Approval Structure will assist in understanding the ACARP approval system.

The projects selected in 2016 provide an indication of the areas of research of interest to the coal industry. The report summarising these ACARP People and Projects 2016 is available to download.

Guidelines for the preparation of short proposals are available on the last page of the Research Priorities Newsletter ACARPResearchPrioritiesNewsletter.

Each proposal must have the Proposal Summary Sheet attached. It is important to note that this is a new summary sheet and must be used in place of the one requested in previous years..

Proposals should be emailed to ACARP (anne@acarp.com.au) after 1 April 2017 and no later than the COB on the closing date of 3 May 2017.


Priorities

These priorities have been developed by the five technical committees responsible for project development and selection. The categories to which these priorities relate are:

Proposals in the environment and community category will be considered by either the underground, open cut or coal preparation committees, as appropriate.

These priorities are not prescriptive but should act as a guide to the areas in which ACARP is seeking research proposals.

ACARP is a collaborative program that utilises the experience and technical strength of both the coal mining industry and research institutions in solving technical problems and addressing issues of significance to the industry’s long term future. Any proposed research project that is strongly supported by a mine site and is of interest to a number of coal operations is encouraged.

Safety and environment remain key drivers in the program and will continue to be the focus of much of the underground work and a significant component of the open cut and coal preparation programs.

Back

Underground Priorities

The Underground Committee is seeking research projects to materially improve the health and sustainability of underground mining operations. To achieve this, research in the following areas should be considered.

IMPROVED HEALTH AND SAFETY

  • Prevent Harm from Spontaneous Combustion, Ignitions, Explosions, Outbursts, Coal Bursts, Ventilation and Strata Failures - Improved understanding, detection, prediction, protection, selection and design of major hazard management systems.
  • Management of Health – including mental health and fatigue.
  • Communication to Employees and Contractors of Safety Measures - Improvement such that the information, training and instruction is provided in a readily understandable way.
  • Operator Interfaces and Vehicle Interaction - Improving equipment, automation and remote monitoring and control, also addressing musculoskeletal disorders, improved ergonomics and improved roadway conditions.
  • Airborne and Noise Contaminants - Reduce exposure to airborne dust, diesel emissions, and noise.
  • Emergency Response Measures - Adequacy and effectiveness.
  • Investigation of key practices, including legislative, leading practice alternatives and culture.

IMPROVED GEOLOGICAL DEFINITION AND GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL DEPOSITS

Exploration

  • Exploration Data - Innovative methods for the acquisition, capture and modelling of exploration.
  • Downhole Geophysical Surveys - Improved processes for the derivation of additional value from surveys.
  • Hydrocarbons in the Overburden and Floor Strata - Development of methods to understand the nature and quantity of hydrocarbons to assist with risk management.
  • Geological Features - Better resolution in the interval between surface and target seams with emphasis on near surface.
  • Rehabilitation of Boreholes - Methods and materials, including the integrity of grouting.

Resource Evaluation

  • Coal Deposits at Depths of 500-1,000m - Studies on the development of coal deposits with specific focus on ground conditions and applicable mining methods.
  • Validation and Integration of Multiple Exploration Data Sets - Practical and automated techniques.
  • Reconciliation and Updating of Exploration Data - Improved methods with real time operational data.
  • Practical methods for increasing confidence in resources and reserves.
  • Yield Estimates - Optimisation of the coal quality testing process to improve estimates.

Strata Control, Hydrology and Gas Management

  • Scanning detection methods for underground roadway rock mass classification and hazard detection.
  • Methods of detecting height of fracturing above longwalls particularly in relation to water and air connectivity.
  • Improvements in understanding of roadway failure mechanisms (particularly shear displacement) and impact on support systems.
  • Improvements in understanding of adjacent roadway stress shadowing.
  • Improved rib control systems in friable coal.
  • Methods for routine scanning of roadway deformation.
  • Improved support systems for longwall recovery.
  • Anomalies and Discontinuities - Improved efficiency and effectiveness in detection ahead of mining.
  • Gas and Hydrogeology - Improved assessment and evaluation including:
    • Impacts of groundwater on stability and degradation of material properties.
    • Impacts of mining on surface and groundwater including aquifer interaction and interaction with the mining horizon.
    • Strata gas reservoir characteristics and potential interaction with the mining horizon.
    • Impacts of dewatering and degassing on stress and strength resulting from gas drainage and or production.
  • Investigate novel or unique materials to improve manual handling of equipment.

HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY MINING

  • Roadway Development - Improvements in advance rates and environment conditions leading to an integrated system comprising cutting, strata support, continuous haulage, logistics, and panel advancement.
  • Mine Logistics - Improved management, more efficient design of men and material transport and handling systems.
  • Remote Control and Automation Processes - Application of advanced mining processes to increase productivity and reduce operator exposure to hazards.
  • Reliability of Longwall Systems - Improved systems and further development of non-traditional longwall methods (e.g. top coal caving, thin seam mining).
  • Gas Drainage Practices - Improvement efficiency and effectiveness for:
    • Rate of drainage.
    • Understanding and measuring outburst threshold parameters.
    • Promoting gas liberation from “tight” coals.

MINING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY

  • Enhanced Safety, Output and Energy Efficiency – Particularly targeting alternate power storage and delivery e.g. electric, through improvements in design, operability and maintainability
  • Increased Output through Improvements in Uptime of Services Processes - Improvements to the design of mine services and infrastructure and improvements in the methods of advancing and retracting panel infrastructure such as pipes, cables, explosion suppression, and LW pump stations and transformers.
  • Improved Process Management – Through automation, monitoring, management of big data and reporting of mining systems and sub-processes.
  • Novel Materials and Manufacturing Techniques – Reduction in weight, improvement in corrosion protection, fatigue and wear life.
  • Advancing Standards to Facilitate the Introduction of Modern Technology – In particular for electrical equipment in hazardous areas.
  • Alternates to diesel powered transport and haulage vehicles.

Back

Open Cut Priorities

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

The industry is looking for direct or indirect improvements in health and safety across all mining and exploration operations. Areas of interest for open cut mining are:

  • Investigation of key health and safety issues and management systems, practices and culture, including legislative leading practice alternatives.
  • Management of health including mental health, alcohol and other drugs, return to work and fatigue, e.g. by reduced exposure to noise, vibration, dust and heat, by determining mental health of employees, etc.
  • Protection and removal of personnel from hazardous situations such as those around unstable ground, in the vicinity of voids, and around excavations particularly during truck loading.
  • General improvement to the health and safety of mining and maintenance operations through novel manual handling aids, including automated technologies or equipment changes.
  • Improving equipment operator interfaces, vehicle interaction management, improved automation and remote control.
  • Development of safety in the design of systems and equipment that leads to the reduction of occupational exposure at the source, e.g. noise, dust, blast fumes etc.
  • Improve the communication to employees and contractors of safety measures such that the information, training and instruction are provided in a method that allows cognitive retention.
  • Development of a cognitive recognition method which addresses the normalising effects that are created due to the human brain predominantly operating in a subconscious mode and failing to recognise changes in their environment that could lead to adverse outcomes.

MINING

A reduction in unit costs of existing mining systems is a key driver for the industry. Some specific focus areas are:

  • Innovative mine design, methods and tools (mitigating weather impacts, pre-mine gas drainage and integration of operating open cuts above old undergrounds).
  • Cost effective designs and methods to close and rehabilitate mines dealing with dumps, drainage systems and tailings facilities
  • Improve the productivity of trucks and excavators.
  • Develop common operator interfaces to support interoperation of technical systems on mobile equipment to avoid clutter in the operator cabin (vehicle interaction management, fleet management, GPS, fatigue systems and vital signs, etc).
  • Develop systems that allow interoperation of technical systems on mobile equipment between different manufacturers (collision management, fleet management, GPS, fatigue systems and vital signs, etc) including control of critical machine functions (e.g. startup interlocks, emergency braking/shutdown).
  • Develop decision support systems for managing data by operators (in-cab interfaces), supervisors (production information) and engineers (HPGPS data into designs, strata recognition into load sheets, etc).
  • Establish new methods of fragmentation or improvements on existing methods (e.g. linking strata recognition with explosives optimisation and diggability).
  • Develop innovative coal recovery methods, improve dilution rejection in pit and advanced sensing technology to detect variation in coal seam quality.

Safe implementation of new technology to reduce operating unit costs is also a key driver for the industry. Some specific options are:

  • Integration of SLAP (Shovel Load Assist Program) for hydraulic excavators/shovels.
  • Develop remote, semi-automated or automated mining systems (draglines, excavators, dozers and explosives trucks).
  • Investigate continuous cutting technology for overburden and coal removal e.g. no need for drill and blasting (high volume surface longwalls, surface miners, etc).
  • Establish selective mining techniques (thin seam mining, steep dip [20-90°] highwall/floor mining, remote access of deep seams from boreholes).
  • Strata recognition from production drill rigs.

MAINTENANCE

Proposals are sought that improve equipment efficiency, reliability and services supported by or integrated with OEMs:
  • The application of alternative materials to high maintenance areas.
  • Reliability engineering, including whole of asset approaches.
  • Effective condition monitoring, real time monitoring and its useful integration.
  • Integrate existing data acquisition systems.
  • Innovations that help mine operators improve tyre life.
  • Advances that help relate duty to work done across a range of equipment to define maintenance needs.
  • Improved methods for reducing catastrophic equipment failures.
  • Technologies that improve energy efficiency across the mine including fuel/electricity/gas for fixed and mobile equipment.
  • Robotic assistance for routine mobile maintenance.
  • Modularised systems for equipment maintenance.
  • Reduce labour intensive field maintenance activities (e.g. GET, rigging) through design.
  • Remote maintenance management; condition monitoring, diagnosis, repair etc.
  • Methods to receive, capture and convert data.
  • Innovative big data techniques to improve maintenance.

GEOLOGY AND GEOTECHNICAL

Improved geological definition and geotechnical assessment of coal deposits represent key focus areas.

Exploration

  • Innovative methods for the acquisition, capture and modelling of exploration data.
  • Improved processes for the derivation of additional value from downhole geophysical surveys, specifically in the areas of:
    • Identification and evaluation of discontinuities.
    • Improved rock mass characterisation.
    • Derivation of credible coal quality estimates from geophysical logs, CT etc.
    • Establishment and development of leading practice work processes.
  • Better resolution of geological features in interval between surface and target seams with emphasis on near surface.
Resource Evaluation
  • Improve understanding of key aspects of Australia’s coal basins and how they impact on mining conditions (including structure, stratigraphy, groundwater, coal rank and quality trends).
  • Innovative practical automated techniques, improved methods for the validation and integration of multiple exploration data sets.
  • Real time improved methods for reconciliation and updating of exploration data with real time operational data.
  • Practical methods for increasing confidence in estimation and classification of resources and reserves.
  • Optimisation of the coal quality testing process with a view to improving yield estimates
Geotechnical and Hydrogeological Evaluation
  • Detection and characterisation of hazards in the distressed, degassed and dewatered zones ahead of mining.
  • Improvements in rock mass classification specific to open cut slope stability.
  • Development of UAV and other systems (eg LiDar, machine learning) for open cut slope geotechnical mapping and deformation monitoring.
  • Minimisation of geotechnical risk with a particular focus on deeper excavations and higher spoils; including the improved understanding, modelling, monitoring and management of principal hazards.
  • Investigate material properties, implications on dump design, capping and stability of alternative methods of tailings disposal in spoil.
  • Identify risks associated with interaction of planned/advancing open cut and underground workings with old underground workings.
  • Improve methods for understanding strata failure mechanisms in open cut slope stability.
  • Investigate novel applications of existing data sources.
  • Improve assessment and evaluation of hydrogeology on mining including
    • Impacts on slope stability and degradation of material properties.
    • Impact of mining on groundwater including aquifer interaction.

Back

Coal Preparation Priorities

The coal industry faces a range of challenges which, in coal preparation research, translate to:

  • Occupational health, safety and environmental improvements.
  • Energy and water efficiency improvements.
  • Optimal resource/reserve recovery within specification.

Proposals offering practical and commercially viable outcomes that can be implemented relatively quickly are especially encouraged. Consideration will also be given to projects addressing the traditional areas of coal preparation improvement, such as efficiency optimisation, moisture and cost reduction.

THE PLANT OF TODAY

Projects are sought to deliver lower cost, higher efficiency, and higher throughput from existing operations. Specific needs include:

  • Optimising the process efficiency of individual unit operations.
  • Optimising maintenance practices and equipment designs to deliver improved process efficiency at lower costs.
  • Development of total cost of ownership and effective maintenance strategies for the development of infrastructure (e.g. to ensure structural integrity).
  • Developing leading practice operations and maintenance guides for existing unit operations.
  • Constructing tools to monitor and quantify the effect of sub-optimal operation.
  • Increasing the efficiency of fine particle size and density separations.
  • Development of processes that facilitate new coal utilisation pathways.
  • Encourage the use of high definition analysis techniques such as CGA and XT.
  • Enhancing performance of existing technologies.

THE PLANT OF THE FUTURE

Research is required to generate step change technologies that materially change the plant and/or markets for coal utilisation of the near future. Levers may include:

  • Development of new processing technologies that are higher capacity, lower cost, or more efficient.
  • Deployment of existing technologies and approaches from other industries in a coal specific context.
  • Automation of mobile equipment in coal handling applications such as dozer push.
  • Development of high capacity dry processing techniques that are less sensitive to feed size.
  • Automation to boost productivity and reduce cost.
  • New and improved sensors to measure critical process parameters and track coal losses in real time

SUSTAINABILITY

It is imperative to continue to improve health and safety outcomes and reduce the environmental impacts of the coal preparation plant process. This may include:

  • Developing tailings disposal processes to reduce cost and improve environmental outcomes.
  • Reducing noise and dust generation at the coal handling and preparation plant and along rail corridors.
  • Improving the dewatering of fine product and reject streams.
  • Developing improved tailings reprocessing methodologies.

Back

Technical Market Support Priorities

Australian coal producers face increasing competition for market share from:

  • Emerging supply regions;
  • Coal users seeking to reduce cost through lower quality coals, substitutes and alternate technologies.
  • Increasing regulation impacting traded coal quality, transport and utilisation.

The Technical Market Support Committee seeks to address these pressures and deliver maximum market benefit for Australian coals through selection, funding and monitoring of priority research projects.

The Industry encourages the adoption of new analytical techniques and equipment that has been successfully used in other areas of science and technology.

Proposals are being sought in areas relating to coal properties which impact market value and to the market impact portion of the value chain which runs from sea port to customer.

Specific priorities are:

  • Relative utilisation behaviour of Australian coals compared with those from competing supply regions.
  • Respond to regulatory impacts on trading, handling and transport and utilisation of Australian coals.
  • Fundamental and applied understanding to relate properties of cokes to those of the coals from which they are made.
  • Effective and consistent characterisation techniques for thermal, metallurgical coals and cokes to enable rational market valuation.

Back

Environment and Community Priorities

The industry is calling for research to enable it to continually improve its ability to manage environment and community issues. Research is needed to fill knowledge gaps in, and identify, future issues such that stakeholders have confidence in the industry’s ability to manage and reduce its impacts.

The industry is seeking proposals relating to the coal mining industry’s license to operate, water management and effective mine site closure and lease/property relinquishment. It is particularly keen to see research address the following aspects:

  • Improved management of the potential impacts of open cut and/or underground mining on surface waters, groundwater and the local and/or regional ecosystems supported by these resources.
  • Improved techniques to achieve efficient use of raw water, innovative reuse of mine impacted water, and effective management of treatment by-products including brine.
  • Improved methods for the prediction and management of dust, overpressure, vibration, fumes and noise impacts, in the context of both environment and community health impacts and suited to informing policy frameworks for the development of local and regional air quality criteria.
  • Improved understanding/management of land use conflicts across the mining life cycle including the early identification of issues/aspects necessary to promote win-win outcomes and encourage consensus from competing interests.
  • Sustainable coal washery by-product management with a focus on beneficial use.
  • Sustainability of mine rehabilitation including aspects such as landform design and evolution, subsidence, performance assessment, biodiversity reinstatement, reestablishment of agricultural land uses, landscape function and alternate post mining land uses.
  • Revegetation including species selection and improved methods for the introduction of recalcitrant and/or high interest native species in mine rehabilitation.
  • Management of problematic overburden materials including dispersive, saline, sodic, acid and spontaneous combustible materials.
  • Investigation into aspects of effective mine closure including:
    • Tenure and property relinquishment and the improvement of policy framework and options for relinquishment.
    • Sustainable land use and the integration of post-mining land use with neighbouring/regional land use.
    • Final voids and the stability of highwall/low walls in perpetuity.
    • Long term impacts that may be associated with post-mining surface water and groundwater.
    • The management of residual risk.

Back

Mine Site Greenhouse Mitigation Priorities

Fugitive gases are the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions from coal mining operations and as such are a primary focus of Mine Site Greenhouse Committee priorities. The industry seeks innovative means for mitigation and accurate measurement of fugitive mine site gas emissions.

Before submitting a proposal in this area, it should be noted that:

  • Demonstration and large scale test work is beyond the financial capability of ACARP.
  • The Committee will only consider proposals addressing greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production of coal, not due to the utilisation of coal.
  • Commercial power generation technologies for high purity methane such as drainage gas are being increasingly adopted and are not seen as a high priority for further ACARP research.

UTILISATION OR DESTRUCTION OF MINE GAS

Dilute sources of seam gas such as mine ventilation air are a significant challenge. Proposals aimed at combusting or utilising dilute gas (0.5% of less methane), or increasing the methane concentration to usable levels, in a safe and cost effective manner without the need for a supplementary fuel are encouraged.

CAPTURE OF MINE GAS

The Mine Site Greenhouse Mitigation Committee is interested in projects addressing open cut or underground operations with the potential to:
  • Reduce gas drainage costs.
  • Maximise pre and post mining gas recovery.
  • Improve the quality and consistency of mine gas production.

Commercial power generation technologies for high purity methane such as drainage gas are being increasingly adopted and are not seen as a high priority for further ACARP research.

MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS

The Committee is interested in proposals for the improvement and measurement of fugitive emissions from operating and decommissioned mines.

Back

Approval Structure

An understanding of the ACARP approval structure will assist in preparation and submission of Research Proposals.

Back

2017 Calendar


March

Priority Setting & Strategy Meetings

April 1

Call for Proposals (Announcement in Paper and distribution of Newsletter)

May 3

Closing Date for Short Proposals

July

Short Proposal Selection Meetings
July 28th - Call for Long Proposals

August 25

Postgraduate Scholarship applications due

August 30

Closing Date for Long Proposals

October

Long Proposal Selection Meetings

December (mid)

Researchers advised of Proposal Outcomes
* This timetable is subject to change.

Back

Postgraduate Scholarships

Two full time postgraduate scholarships are available each year.

Who can apply?

An employee of the Australian coal industry or an industry directly associated with it, who satisfies university requirement for postgraduate degrees. The candidate will have been employed in the industry for a minimum of 3 years after graduating.

How Much?

The scholarship will provide $100,000 per annum tax free to the candidate. Additional support will be available to the hosting university.

Type of Postgraduate study

Full time PhD. Research, not course work.

Scholarship selection

The scholarship selection and management will be coordinated by the ACARP Research Committee. This committee is made up of senior technical managers from the Australian black coal industry.

Who defines the research project?

It is the responsibility of the candidate to find a suitable project, supervisor and hosting university.

What are the suitable projects?

With ACARP currently spending over $16 million per year on 170 research projects, candidates should gain an understanding of the areas in which ACARP has undertaken research by looking at the People and Projects Report

The Research Priorities Newsletter defines the areas requiring further research.

Participating Universities

A number of Australian universities have registered their participation in the program.

When to apply

The cut off date for submissions in 2017 will be Friday, 25th August for review by the ACARP Research Committee.
Final decisions will be made by the ACARP Board in December each year.

How to Apply

Download the Guidelines for ACARP Scholarship, and then Contact ACARP at 07 3225 3600 or email Anne Mabardi to receive further information.

Back

Underground

Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C23005Use Of Plastic Metal In Underground Coal Mines For Minor Repair On Flameproof Equipment

The potential for a gas or dust explosion arising from hot work and ...

C25070Shuttle Car Steering System Optimisation

The condition of roadways in underground mines is of great importance, a...

C20041Polymer-Based Alternative To Steel Mesh For Coal Mine Strata Reinforcement

The report details work undertaken to develop a polymer-based alternativ...

Underground

Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C19023MWD For Super-Resolution Control Of R.A.B. Drilled Blast-Hole Stand-Off Distances

Open-cut coal mine blasting losses are serious. Incorrect blast stan...

C21005RAB Drill Rig Top Of Coal Detection While Drilling

Accurately detecting the approaching top of a coal seam prior to blastin...

C24064Top Of Coal Detection In A Rotary Air Blast Drill Rig

Accurately detecting the approaching top of a coal seam prior to bla...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C24046Online Particle Size Monitoring In Coal Preparation

The principle of using laser diffraction as a means of measuring a v...

C24048Thickener Underflow Monitor

The aim of this project was to develop an instrument that is capable of ...

C24044RFID Residence Time Modelling

The project had two main objectives, the first to provide residence ...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C24060Structural Differences Between Coking Coals Of The Sydney Basin And Other Sources

Cokes made from Australian coals of relatively low fluidity can have...

C25045Stage One - Assessment Of In Situ High-Temperature Strength Of Cokes

A typical high-CSR Australian coke was subjected to high-temperature...

C24056Relationship Between Internal Pressure And Coke Strength And Implications For Semi Soft Coking Coals In Blends

The objective of this project was to explore the relationships between t...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C24017Improving Methods For Quantifying Fugitive Emissions From Open Cut Coal Mining

Fugitive emissions from open cut coal mines are usually estimated fo...

C21065Flame Arresting Mechanisms And Flameproof Device For VAM Mitigation

The overall goal of this project was to study the gas flammability limit...

c21064Development Of A Catalytic Mitigation System For VAM - Stage 3 - 20 Litre Per Min VAM Flow Technical Development Unit

This report describes work undertaken towards the development of a p...

Mine Site Greenhouse Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

C19025Governance Strategies To Manage And Monitor Cumulative Impacts At The Local And Regional Level

ACARP levy contributors should order this report in the normal manner – ...

Mining And The Community

NERDDC

National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook

NERDDC