Coal Preparation                                  reports

Coal Preparation

Maintenance, improved recovery and plant capacity are our key coal preparation strategies. Work is focused on maximising yield, reducing production costs, minimising emissions, reducing water consumption and the use of lower quality water without adversely impacting on process efficiency.

Dewatering (40 Reports)

Dry Beneficiation Using FGX and X-Ray Sorters

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Author: Glenn Sherritt | A&B Mylec

Conventional dry processing methods engage a single beneficiation device (e.g. FGX, Air Jigs) employing air (and vibration) in place of water or medium, as is typical in wet coal preparation. More contemporary dry sorting methods employ advanced electromagnetic sensors coupled with analysers, ....  read more


Agglomeration to Minimize Moisture and Maximize Yield

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Author: Daniel Borrow, Jamie Dickinson, Matthew Cole & Kevin Galvin | University of Newcastle

The objective of this project was to determine the potential to effect a reduction in fine coal product moisture using a novel agglomeration technology. Following agglomeration, the final product was subjected to pressure filtration tests at both 1 and 7 bar, and the final moistures ....  read more


Characterisation of Pressure (Hyperbaric) Filter Performance

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Author: Ben Narbutas & Bob Drummond | QCC Resources

Hyperbaric disc filter technology has been used to dewater fine coal concentrates in Eastern Europe and China for over 30 years. A pilot scale investigation was undertaken in 2016, which examined the suitability of this technology to dewater Australian fine coal flotation concentrates. This ....  read more


Improving Solids Recovery and Moisture Reduction in Ultrafine Coal Dewatering

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Author: Changzhi Bai, Hangil Park, Liguang Wang | University of Queensland

This report provides detailed information on fine coal dewatering in the screen bowl centrifuge (SBC). SBCs are used in some coal preparation plants in Australia to dewater the flotation concentrate, and the process often faces the problem of low solids recovery (e.g., 70%). This represents a ....  read more


Integrated Investigation of Solid Capture and Moisture Reduction of Clay Tailings

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Author: Cuong Nguyen, Van Nguyen, Andrew Doi, Majid Ejtemaei and Anh Nguyen | University of Queensland

Dewatering of fine coal tailings is a big challenge to the coal industry. These dewatering and handling problems are caused by the complex surface properties and gelation due to the swelling characteristics of smectite-type clays, which can result in high yield stress, high dosages of ....  read more


Dewatering of Ultrafine Coals and Tailings by Centrifugation: Pilot Scale Studies

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Author: Majid Ejtemaei, Anh Nguyen | The University of Queensland

Dewatering of ultrafine coal and tailings is a big challenge to the coal industry. In this project, the dewatering of ultrafine coal and tailings in the presence of chemicals (anionic and cationic surfactants, and anionic flocculants) were investigated using surface characterisation ....  read more


Novel Characterisation of Coal Petrography for Improving the Dewatering of Fine Coals Using Chemicals

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Author: Majid Ejtemaei, Jianlong Wang, Anh Nguyen, Priyanthi Hapugoda and Graham O’Brien | The University of Queensland and CSIRO

This project aimed to develop alternatives to existing mechanical dewatering technology, improve water quality and usage, and encourage further projects in these dewatering areas.  Typically, concentrates of coal flotation are dewatered to provide fine coal products of approximately 20 ....  read more


Optimising the Performance of Tailings Dewatering in a Solid Bowl Centrifuges

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Author: Rohan Stanger, Andrew Stanger, Quang Anh Tran, Wei Xie, Michael Stockenhuber, Eric Kennedy, John Lucas, Terry Wall | University of Newcastle

This tailings dewatering study was undertaken to provide a link between the fundamental tailings properties and observable bulk characteristics produced by a solid bowl centrifuge. Samples were taken from both a commercial and pilot scale unit operated at separate mine sites. This afforded the ....  read more


Improving the Dewatering Efficiency of Fine Flotation Concentrates by De-aerating Froth Products

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Author: Xumeng Chen and Yongjun Peng | The University of Queensland

The presence of overly stable froths in fine coal flotation products is becoming a common phenomenon in Australian coal preparation plants due to the increasing amount of fine coals which need to be processed and the widespread use of high salinity process water. The overly stable froth causes ....  read more


Advanced Dynamic Control For Paste Thickeners - First Stage For Control Of Complete CHPP’s

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Author: Götz Bickert, Jie Bao, Ridwan Setiawan and Chee Keong Tan | GBL Process, University of New South Wales

Paste thickeners produce significantly higher solids underflow concentrations than conventional thickeners through higher beds within the thickeners. They have been introduced into the coal preparation industry for coal tailings dewatering. Control of paste thickeners is critical because the ....  read more


Thickener Underflow Monitor

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Author: Noel Lambert | Clean Process Technologies

The aim of this project was to develop an instrument that is capable of accurately and reliably measuring the quality of the thickener underflow in an operating coal preparation plant environment.


Overall the values obtained for viscosity, particle density, slurry density ....  read more


Belt Press Filter Handbook

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Author: Darren Mathewson, Daniel Eschebach | Quality Process Solutions

Tailings management is critical to the efficient operation of a modern mine and mineral processing plant. Due to intense scrutiny of the overall environmental impact and water usage of CPPs, obtaining approval for tailings dams has become increasingly difficult, leading to an increase in the ....  read more


Application of Screw Press Filtration to Tailings Dewatering

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Author: Stuart Whitton, Wilfried Wimmler, Timothy Vangsness | Mechanical Advantage, Ishigaki Oceania, University of Queensland

A pilot scale screw press filter was tested at an operating mine site where it filtered coal tailings containing high levels of kaolin clays. Its performance is compared to that of a recess plate pressure filter that was used to filter the same tailings materials at the same time. During the ....  read more


Enhanced Dewatering of CHPP Tailings Through Modification of the Structure of Pre-sedimented Flocs

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Author: Philip Ofori, Clint McNally and Bruce Firth & Anh Nguyen | CSIRO & University of Queensland

The effective management and disposal of coal preparation process effluents containing colloidal particulate matter, particularly fine tailings with clay minerals are important to the Australian coal industry from both environmental and water recovery perspectives. Tailings management ....  read more


Novel Basket Design for Fine Coal Centrifuges

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Author: M Thomas, Chris Veal | CSIRO Energy Technology

Please refer to ....  read more


Dewatering of Ultrafine Coals and Tailings by CentribaricTM Technology - Laboratory Scale Tests

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Author: Liguang Wang, Jianwei Du, Anh Nguyen | The University of Queensland


This report describes the responses of Australian coals and tailings to the commercialised CentribaricTM dewatering technology at laboratory scale and in batch mode. It provides detailed information on the impact of operating variables and particle size and type on the ....  read more


Significant Reduction In Filter Cake Moisture With Vacuum Filtration

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Author: Andrew Vince, Dr Götz Bickert, Karin Meyer, Heike Sigloch, Markus Gärtner and Rob Sedmak | Elsa Consulting Group, Department of Chemical Engineering University of NSW, Dendrobium Coal Preparation Plant BHP Billiton Illawarra Collieries

This project has considered three important concepts that were shown to offer industrial potential to reduce the moisture content of horizontal vacuum belt filer cakes.


Initial bench scale testing indicated that the use of surface hydrophobicity modifying chemicals caused ....  read more


Improving the Control of Product Coal Moisture Based on Unsaturated Soil Mechanics Principles

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Author: David Williams, Stuart Whitton | University of Queensland, Mechanical Advantage

ACARP Project C15061 addressed a Research Priority of improved recovery by reducing product coal moisture.  This was achieved through applying unsaturated soil mechanics principles to better understand the water storage capacity, dewatering and re-wetting of product coal, during ....  read more


Electrokinetic Dewatering of Ultrafine Coal and Coal Tailings

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Author: Andy Fourie | University of Western Australia, CSIRO, Curtin University

The processing, transport and management of ultrafine coal tailings often represents major financial and logistical concerns for owners and operators of collieries. The problems almost invariably relate to the volume of water that has to be managed when dealing with the ultrafine tailings. ....  read more


Improved Centrifuge Basket Performance

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Author: Glenn Hart, Michael O'Brien, Bruce Firth | CSIRO

Experimental work at Coppabella by Sedgman suggested that a moisture reduction could be obtained via a reduction in the basket speed with a commensurate increase in basket life.  This finding raised the issue of our lack of understanding of :

  • The importance
 ....  read more


Horizontal Belt Filter Control

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Author: Garry France | Callidan Instruments

This project examines the installation of an on-line instrument to measure cake moisture in horizontal bed filters, in real-time. This will allow operators and process engineers to accurately adjust process parameters to meet the desired product moisture. It would also eliminate the ....  read more


Improving Fine Coal Centrifuge: Stages 2 and 3

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Author: Glenn Hart, M Thomas, Chris Veal, Bruce Firth, P Townsend, S Morgan | CSIRO Energy Technology

The preferred filtration device for flotation concentrates in most Australian plants is currently the horizontal vacuum belt filter. This machine has many advantages such as high reliability, low maintenance, ease of control, high solids capture and able to accommodate rapid changes in feed ....  read more


Tailings Dewatering Technologies for Australian Coal Processing Plants

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Author: Götz Bickert | University of New South Wales

The objective of the study was to undertake a review of tailings dewatering technologies currently used in Australia and Overseas and technologies with the potential to improve tailings dewatering either from a quality (moisture and handleability) or commercial ....  read more


Review of ACARP Dewatering Projects

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Author: Chris Wood | Partition Enterprises

This report presents a review of the 26 past and current coal dewatering research projects funded by NERDDC and ACARP. It was commissioned by ACARP to:

  • summarise the practical outcomes
  • highlight any further potential outcomes that could be realised for a relatively
 ....  read more


Residual Moisture Reduction through the Development of an Air-Purged Chute: Vol 1 - Commercial Scale

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Author: D Condie, BK Johnston, N Bramall, Glenn Hart, S Morgan, Chris Veal, Stuart Nicol | CSIRO Energy Technology, Novatech Consulting

Volume 1: Air-Purged Centrifuge: Air purging is a novel process that involves the injection of a turbulent stream of compressed air through a bed of coarse coal particles physically displacing adherent water and delivering lower-moisture products. The concept has previously been ....  read more


Single Leaf Filtration Test (SLFT) Apparatus

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Author: Florent Bourgeois, M Haque | University of Queensland

To date, there has been n o Australian Standard test for conducting vacuum filtration tests of mineral and coal fines' slurries.

A previous project developed a versatile prototype leaf test apparatus for conducting vacuum filtration tests with fine coal slurries. This novel technology ....  read more


Improving the Flocculation and Filtration of Fine Coal

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Author: David Condie, Chris Veal | CSIRO Energy Technology

The objective was to assess the effectiveness of the techniques being used in plants for conditioning of filter feed with flocculant, and establish whether improvements in conditioning could lead to improved filter performance. The criterion of success adopted in this project for good ....  read more


Novel Basket Design for Fine Coal Centrifuges

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Author: M Thomas, Chris Veal | CSIRO Energy Technology

The preferred filtration device for flotation concentrates in most Australian plants is currently the horizontal vacuum belt filter. This machine has many advantages such as high reliability, low maintenance, ease of control, high solids capture and able to accommodate rapid changes in feed ....  read more


Investigation of Moisture Reduction Methods for Horizontal Belt Filters with the Single Leaf Filter Test

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Author: Florent Bourgeois, Tofazzel Hague, Chris Clarkson | University of Queensland, C Clarkson & Associates

This project builds on earlier work, that concluded that controlling cake microstructure was a potential means of reducing equilibrium cake moisture. This result led to the hypothesis that by modifying cake microstructure during the drying phase of the filtration cycle, cake moisture ....  read more


Product Moisture After Centrifuging Coarse Coal - Stage 2 and Development & Demonstration of Standard Test

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Author: Bruce Firth, Ted White, Brian Stanmore, Andrew Hoskin, Mike O'Brien, Shenggen Hu | CSIRO Energy Technology, University of Queensland

High moisture contents in export coals increase transport and handling costs and invoke contract penalties. Considerable efforts have been focussed on fine coal dewatering, but relatively little research has been done on ....  read more


Integrated Dewatering and Size Enlargement - Stage 2

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Author: D Condie, Chris Veal | CSIRO Energy Technology

This report summarises the results of a two stage study aimed at demonstrating the use of heavy fuel oil emulsions as a dewatering aid to reduce the moisture content of fine coal products from vacuum filters. Stage 1 of this project had previously indicated that moisture reductions up to ....  read more


Improved Dewatering in Fine Coal Centrifuges

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Author: B Johnston, L Stapleton, C Veal, J Donnelly | CSIRO Energy Technology, James C Donnelly and Associates

This report summarises the results from a study aimed at improving the solids capture of scroll centrifuges. The main objective was to assess at pilot and commercial scales, the ....  read more


Residual Moisture Reduction through the Development of an Air Purged Centrifuge

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Author: BK Johnston, Chris Veal, Stuart Nicol | CSIRO Energy Technology, Novatech Consulting

Australian coal production is approximately 200Mt per annum. Most of this coal is cleaned using wet beneficiation techniques and as a consequence the overall product consignment contains entrained moisture. This entrained moisture, which normally is around 8-9wt%, presents the market with ....  read more


Shear Coagulation of Fine Coal to Improve Moisture Control

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Author: Graeme Jameson, Bruce Atkinson, K Dahl | University of Newcastle

The aim of the project which began in early 1994, was to investigate the shear coagulation/shear flocculation of fine coal, and its effects on the filtration rate and final moisture content of de-watered coal product.  In the past, it has been difficult to float the coal in the ultrafine ....  read more


Fundamentals of Fine Coal Dewatering

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Author: Flourent Bourgeois, W Barton, A Buckley, A McCutcheon, Chris Clarkson | CMTE, C Clarkson & Associates

The aim of this project was to develop a fundamental understanding of coal-water interactions and of the dewatering process that will form the basis for improving the dewatering behaviour of all black coals, not just problem coals.  The objectives of the project were:

  • To
 ....  read more


Agglomeration of Fine Steaming Coal

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Author: Keith N Clark | CSIRO Energy Technology

This is a preliminary report following the initial assessment and commissioning of the fine coal balling operation at Newlands mine.  It is part of an ACARP assisted program to determine the potential of balling fine coal using molasses based binders while not using a drying step to ....  read more


Improved Handling and Transport of Coal Fines through Integration of Dewatering and Size Enlargement

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Author: Chris J Veal, BK Johnston, M Attalla | CSIRO Energy Technology

Results of a bench scale, proof-of-concept study aimed at improving the handling, transport and marketability of coal fines are summarised and discussed. The concept involves integration of conventional filtration with size enlargement, by adding a ....  read more


Product Moisture After Centrifuging Coarse Coal

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Author: Bruce Firth, T White, B Stanmore | CSIRO Energy Technology, University of Queensland

High moisture content in export coals increases transport and handling costs and invokes contract penalties. Considerable effort has been focussed on fine coal dewatering, but significant variation in the moisture content of the coarse product is also important.  Very little work has been ....  read more


Residual Moisture Reduction Through The Development Of An Air Purge Centrifuge Stage 1 Bench-Scale Feasibility Study

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Author: BK Johnston, CJ Veal, SK Nicol | CSIRO Division of Coal and Energy Technology and Novatech Consulting Pty Ltd

This was the first in a series of projects in which the overall objective was to reduce the limiting residual moisture of centrifuge products by 1 wt% absolute basis (or 20 wt% on a relative basis) by injecting a turbulent flow of air or steam through the particulate bed inside the centrifuge. ....  read more


Commissioned Report: Establishing Priorities for Coal Dewatering R&D

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Author: Chris Clarkson, D Proud | Carbon Consulting International

Efficient dewatering of coal is one of the highest priorities in production encountered by coal preparation engineers. The objectives may be to meet product specifications or environmental constraints or to facilitate the handling of coal and tailings. Reduction of fine coal moisture has ....  read more



Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C27039True Triaxial Strength Of Coal Measure Rocks And Its Impact On Roadway Stability And Coal Burst Assessment

Rocks in the ground are subject to a range of stresses. The stresses...

C3063Underground Vehicle Design Standards And Statutory Implications

The Australian underground diesel vehicle fleet has evolved since di...

C3064Conveyor Belting And Lagging Shear Characteristics - Drive Drum Slip

The primary aim of this project was to investigate the relationsh...


Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C26029Geological Controls On Fluorine And Phosphorus In Bowen Basin Coals

Increasing global restrictions on fluorine in product coal prompted ...

C28033Raw Ash To Yield Relationships

Correct outcomes in yield predictions for product ash from coal bore...

C27038Establishing Self-Sustaining And Recognisable Ecological Mine Rehabilitation

In recent years an increasing interest has been placed on mining ope...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C27064Dry Beneficiation Using FGX And X-Ray Sorters

Conventional dry processing methods engage a single beneficiation de...

C26010Multi-Sloped Screening Efficiency With Changing Strokes, Frequencies, Feed Solids And Feed Rates-Pilot Plant Study

Optimising multi-sloped screens is often described as an art and the...

C28059Impact Of Water Quality In Coal Handling And Preparations Plants

The objective of this project was to deliver a concise reference do...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C23052Novel Stone Dust Looping Process For Ventilation Air Methane Abatement

This multi‐phase project is concerned with the mitigation of m...

C27054Optimisation Of A Thermal Flow Reversal Reactor For Ventilation Air Methane Mitigation

Ventilation air methane (VAM) generally accounts for 50-85% of the t...

C28076Selective Absorption Of Methane By Ionic Liquids (SAMIL) - Phase 2 Demonstration In A Packed Bed Reactor

An alternative approach to high temperature oxidation of ventilation...

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community


National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook