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Technical Market Support                          reports

Technical Market Support

Our work in this area is aimed at understanding the properties of Australian coals which impact on market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of our coals over our competitors. The major markets for Australian coals are electricity generation and iron production.

ACARP has also published a series of whitepapers in this area:

Coal Nitrogen Report
Inertinite Report
Trace Elements in Coal
Electrostatic Precipitation
The Hardgrove Grindability Index


Thermal Coal (61 Reports)

Accurate Instrumental Determination of Carbon in Coal

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C1207301/08/2004
Author: Ken Riley | CSIRO Energy Technology

Traditionally, thermal coal has been traded with its value being primarily determined by calorific value as well as properties relevant to particular customers (such as grindability and slagging/fouling behaviour). With the need to estimate greenhouse gas emissions and the possible ....  read more

 

An Improved Grindability Test

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C1206325/08/2003
Author: Dick Sanders | CCSD, QCC Resources

The Hardgrove Grindability Index test, developed in 1932, is universally used in specifications for coal purchase and power station pulveriser design, to indicate the grinding properties of coal and other commodities. It has, however, three deficiencies:

  • it uses only
 ....  read more

 

Application of Coal Textural Analysis to Predict Grinding Behaviour and Product Composition in Austr

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C406301/01/1997
Author: Judy Bailey, Joan Esterle | University of Newcastle, CSIRO Exploration & Mining

The project set out to develop a technique for the prediction of grindability parameters such as optimum liberation energy, particle size distribution and size fraction composition for pulverised fuel in advance of coal processing.   To achieve this ....  read more

 

Ash Behaviour in Coal-Fired Furnaces: Technology Review

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C905501/05/2001
Author: Terry Wall, Lindsay Juniper, Alan Lowe | University of Newcastle, Ultra-Systems, Pacific Power

This project conducted a state-of-the-art review of ash behaviour, in terms of the ability to predict slagging and fouling, either by comparison with other coals, or for a given coal fired in a given pf fired power station, and the ability to trouble-shoot slagging problems and to establish ....  read more

 

Ash Formation Involving Siderite Performance of PF Fired Plants

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C406401/12/1999
Author: Terry Wall, Chris Bailey, John Patterson, C Dspero, B Singh, Bob Creelman | University of Newcastle, CSIRO Energy Technology, Austral Energy, R A Creelman & Associates

The mineral form of the iron in coal has a fundamental influence on the observed extent and severity of the ash deposition problems encountered during combustion. There has been ....  read more

 

Australian Coal Quality Impact Model

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C309125/10/1996
Author: Ashley Conroy, Phil Bennett | ACIRL, Australian Combustion Technology Centre

This project examines the ability of CQIM (version 1.2) to predict the performance of Australian coals in some of the many processes that occur in a modern coal-fired power station.  The continued growth in the world thermal coal market is resulting in greater diversity in thermal coal ....  read more

 

Automatic Ash Fusion Test

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C905316/07/2001
Author: Lindsay Juniper, Glen Huber, John Saxby | Ultra-Systems Technology, CSIRO Energy Technology

This project has developed a prototype automatic ash fusion temperature measuring system (AAFT) that demonstrates that digital imaging techniques can automate and overcome the problems of the Standard system of measurement. Furthermore, the developed system is closely based on the current AFT ....  read more

 

Background Information for Web Site on Trace Elements in Coal

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C1206001/08/2005
Author: Ken Riley, Les Dale, G Devir, A Williams, Don Holcolmbe | CSIRO, ACIRL

The aim of this project was to develop a website that contains the essential information on the environmentally sensitive trace elements in Australian bituminous thermal coals and provides a comparison of the concentrations in the Australian coals with those of other thermal coals  ....  read more

 

Coal Combustion Testing: New Laboratory Procedure

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C301601/08/1996
Author: David Harris, K Wilson, Anthony Tate, Terry Wall | CSIRO Energy Technology, University of Newcastle

The major objective of the work is the establishment of an effective testing facility to measure the combustion reactivity of pulverised coals.  The facility would use pyrometry techniques with measurements on individual particles being obtained relating to the following coal reactivity ....  read more

 

Coal Quality Testing of Six Coals in a Pilot Scale Combustion Facility Upgraded to Simulate Modern Power Station Capabilities

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C1804528/10/2011
Author: Anthony Williams, Johan Kosasi, Phil Bennett, Don Holcombe | ALS

The Australian export thermal seaborne coal market has grown significantly over the last 25 years and apart from the growth of the market, there have been a number of significant developments in the industry over the last couple of decades.  Technology utilised by end users of Australian ....  read more

 

Demonstration of the True Ash Fusibility Characteristics of Australian Thermal Coals

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C309323/10/1995
Author: Terry F Wall, Bob Creelman, Dick Sanders, Alan Lowe | University of Newcastle, Quality Coal Consulting, Pacific Power

The objective of this report is to integrate the work undertaken in ACARP projects on ash fusibility conducted by ACIRL and the ICR. The objectives of the projects are to provide alternative procedures for the measurement of ash fusibility (ash fusion temperature - AFT) together with an ....  read more

 

Demonstration of the True Ash Fusibility Characteristics of Australian Thermal Coals. Stage 2: Prov

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C506001/04/1998
Author: S Gulpta, Terry Wall, R Gupta, Bob Creelman, R Sanders, A Lowe, J Saxby | University of Newcastle, RA Creelman & Associates, Quality Coal Consulting, CSIRO Energy Technology

The current ash fusibility temperature (AFT) test can give differences in estimates of up to 300°C for some coal ashes. This irreproducibility led to the testing of a range of methods for determining the fusibility temperatures of coal ashes.  The use of shrinkage levels for an ash sample ....  read more

 

Determine and Verify Available Emission Data and to List the Areas Lacking Data on Air Emissions from Industrial Black Coal Fired Boilers in Australia

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C1206401/07/2004
Author: Ken Sullivan, Bob Durie | KM Sullivan and Associates, CSIRO

The Commonwealth Government requires that all Australian fuel users regularly report emissions from their fuel burning plant. These reported results then enter the public domain and are available to all interested parties. This means that Australian industrial users of coal are required ....  read more

 

Developing and Understanding the Ash Fusion Test - Joint Report on C3092, C3093, C4060 and C4061

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C4061A01/05/1997
Author: H Kahraman, Adrian Reifenstein, Charles Coin, Bob Creelman, R Gupta, Terry Wall | ACIRL, Creelman and Associates, University of Newcastle, Quality Coal Consulting

The objective of this report is to integrate the work undertaken in ACARP projects on ash fusibility conducted by ACIRL and the ICR. The objectives of the projects are to provide alternative procedures for the measurement of ash fusibility (ash fusion temperature - AFT) together with an ....  read more

 

Development of an International Standard for Determining Trace Elements in Coal

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C805501/05/2000
Author: Ken Riley, Les Dale | CSIRO Energy Technology

There are no international standard methods for the determination of trace elements in coal. One of the coauthors (K.W. Riley) as an Australian representative on the Subcommittee for the analysis of solid mineral fuels, TC 27 SC 5 of the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) has ....  read more

 

Effect of Iron Dosing on Boiler Performance

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C1307001/10/2004
Author: Allen Lowe | A&SJ Lowe Consulting Services Pty Ltd

The combustion chamber of a pulverised coal fired boiler is designed to accept a range of heat transfer rates. However, should the heat transfer with a particular coal deviate from a range set by the control mechanisms on the boiler, then operational problems can be experienced with ....  read more

 

Effect of Sodium Dosing on ESP Performance - Parts 1 and 2

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C1300101/11/2005
Author: Allen Lowe, Tony Boorer | A&SJ Lowe Consulting Services, Delta Energy

PART 1 REPORT

Fly ash resistivity is an important characteristic in regard to collection of coal ash in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Where the resistivity is excessive the ESP can exhibit symptoms of back corona. This can lead to excessive dust ....  read more

 

Elucidation of the Improved Ash Fusion Test

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C406127/05/1996
Author: Adrian P Reifenstein, H Kahraman, Charles DA Coin | ACIRL

The aim of the project was to understand the processes that produced the response observed in the Improved Ash Fusion test (IAFT).  The initial objective of the project was to determine that the changes observed in the improved Ash Fusion test were relatable to known mineralogical changes ....  read more

 

Environmental Assessment of Thermal Coals

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C1506501/07/2007
Author: Les Dale, Lindsay Juniper | Ultra-Systems Technology

The environmental impact of trace elements during coal combustion relates to their emissions to air and water. Operators of power plants are required to conform to environmental standards through legislated statutory limits and operating agreements. The assessment of potential environmental ....  read more

 

ESP Performance of Australian Coals

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C1206601/03/2003
Author: Allen Lowe | A&SJ Lowe Consulting Services

Electrostatic precipitation is currently the most common method applied throughout the world for collection of fly ash from power station boilers. Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP) are available in capacity suitable for the largest boilers, are relatively cheap to construct, may achieve very ....  read more

 

Evaluate Combustion Behaviour of Australian Export and Overseas Low Rank Coal Blends

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C309701/06/1997
Author: Ashley Conroy, Phil Bennett | ACIRL, Energy Tactics

The increasing growth of the world thermal coal market is seeing more producers from Australia, Indonesia, South Africa, Colombia, USA and Canada entering the market. The coals from these exporting countries differ ....  read more

 

Fracture Toughness as a Replacement for Hardgrove Grindability Index

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C1206201/06/2003
Author: John Sligar | Sligar & Associates

The Hardgrove Grindability test is used to determine how well a particular coal will perform in a coal pulverizer. It is also used commercially as a limiting value property in coal specifications. Inadequacies in the standard test have been recognized for some time and various modifications ....  read more

 

Heat Transfer Behaviour of Australian Coals

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C1206501/02/2003
Author: Allen Lowe | A&SJ Lowe Consulting Services

The aim of this project was to study the leachability of environmentally sensitive trace elements from stockpiles of Australian thermal coals and to address the concerns that have been expressed by some overseas purchasers (in particular Japanese power stations). Although there is no ....  read more

 

Impacts of New Legislative Controls on Mercury Emissions on Markets for Australian Coals

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C1400901/07/2005
Author: Peter Nelson, Kitty Dong | Macquarie University

Recent international developments have led to a very careful examination of mercury emissions to the environment.  Inevitably developments such as these will focus attention on mercury emissions from coal combustion. Mercury is present in small concentrations in coal, but the large ....  read more

 

Improved Ash Fusion Test

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C309230/09/1994
Author: Charles Coin, H Kahraman, Adrian Reifenstein | ACIRL

A new method of the measurement of Ash Fusion Temperatures has been developed using essentially the same equipment as is used for the measurement of ash fusibility under Standards such as AS1038, 15-87 and ASTM D1857-87. However,  ....  read more

 

Improved Grindability Test: Essential Refinements to Method

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C1506801/01/2007
Author: Dick Sanders | QCC Resources

The Hardgrove Grindability Index test, developed in 1932, is universally used in specifications for coal purchase and power station pulveriser design, to indicate the grinding property of coal and other commodities. It has, however, three deficiencies:

  • it uses only the
 ....  read more

 

Improved Techniques for the Prediction of NOx Formation from Char Nitrogen

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C406501/02/1999
Author: Peter Ashman, Brian Haynes, P Nelson, P Nancarrow, J Bus, P Nicholls, T Prokopiuk, C-Z Li | University of Sydney, CSIRO Energy Technology

This study has shown that under staged-air conditions (such as those in low-nox burners) commonly now used to reduce emissions, the ultimate NOx emissions will be, to a large extent, determined by the char-n.  The results show that around half of the char nitrogen will be converted to ....  read more

 

Influence of Coal Particle Size Effects on Pf Combustion Plant Performance and Efficiency

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C1205801/05/2006
Author: J Powis, Michael Whitehouse | Casella CRE Energy

Within Europe, regulations have been introduced that reduce acceptable levels of dust emissions from coal-fired plant.  Such emissions are influenced by a number of factors, but one of the main contributors is carbon in ash.  Furthermore, plant operators are required to ....  read more

 

Leachability of Trace Elements from Coal Stockpiles

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C1102101/02/2003
Author: Ken Riley | CSIRO Energy Technology

The aim of this project was to study the leachability of environmentally sensitive trace elements from stockpiles of Australian thermal coals and to address the concerns that have been expressed by some overseas purchasers (in particular Japanese power stations). Although there is no evidence ....  read more

 

Maintenance of Database on Trace Elements in Australian and Internationally Traded Thermal Coals

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C1306901/02/2006
Author: Les Dale | Les Dale Consulting

The international market in thermal coals for power generation is highly competitive and is largely driven by quality and cost. Environmental issues are however attracting increasing scrutiny because of stricter controls on the release of trace elements to the environment through air emissions ....  read more

 

Maintenance of Database on Trace Elements In Internationally Traded Thermal Coals

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C1705201/03/2010
Author: Les Dale, Ken Riley | Les Dale Consulting, CSIRO Energy Technology

Background

Increasing concern about the environmental impact of trace elements from the utilisation of coal for electricity generation has focused attention on the levels of environmentally sensitive trace elements in thermal coals. Australia is one of the major suppliers to the ....  read more

 

Maintenance of Trace Elements Database

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C1507301/02/2008
Author: Les Dale, Ken Riley | Les Dale Consulting, CSIRO Energy Technology

The international market in thermal coals for power generation is highly competitive and is largely driven by quality and cost. Environmental issues are however attracting increasing scrutiny because of stricter controls on the release of trace elements to the environment through air emissions ....  read more

 

Making the Ash Fusion Temperature Test Useful

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C805001/01/2000
Author: Lindsay Juniper, Glen Huber, Eugene Jak, Bob Creelman, Terry Wall | Ultra Systems Technology, CSIRO Energy Technology, University of Queensland, RA Creelman and Associates, University of Newcastle

This project addressed uncertainties related to ash fusion temperature (AFT) measurements for the prediction of ash deposition in utility boilers. The approach to elucidate areas of concern included:

  • correlation of the melting characteristics of a range of coal ashes with
 ....  read more

 

Management of Trace Elements in Ash Dams

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C1005601/10/2002
Author: Ken Riley, O Farrell, R Jung | CSIRO Energy Technology, CCSD

This project was undertaken to make an assessment of the practicality of "alternative" strategies to manage trace elements, in particular, arsenic, boron, molybdenum, selenium and vanadium in ash dams. These elements form oxyanions in flyash leachates and are soluble ....  read more

 

Measurement of Submicron Ash Emissions and Associated Trace Elements From A Pilot-Scale Boiler Simulation Furnace

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C1804404/09/2013
Author: Don Holcombe | ALS Coal

Concerns about the health effects of solid particulate emissions from coal fired power plants have recently focussed on the fine or sub-micron particles.   The potential health effects of these particles when inhaled are exacerbated by the presence of toxic trace elements, many of ....  read more

 

Measurements of Mercury Speciation From Combustion of Australian Coals

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C1604601/09/2010
Author: Peter Nelson, Anthony Morrison, Pushan Shah, Vladmir Strezov & Hugh Malfroy Pushan Shah and Vladmir Strezov, | Macquarie University, Malfroy Environmental Strategies

Mercury is a naturally occurring metal and there is ample evidence that mercury emitted in industrial areas is transported globally. The UNEP Global Mercury Assessment concluded that there was sufficient evidence of global adverse impacts and that these warranted initiation of actions to reduce ....  read more

 

Milling of Blends

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C1306312/07/2005
Author: Philip Bennett, Graham O'Brien, Don Holcombe | CoalTech, CSIRO, ACIRL

Evaluating the potential performance of coal blends in both the thermal and PCI market requires knowledge of the size distribution of the organic and mineral matter components of a blend, especially when there are significant differences in the HGI of the component coals. The size ....  read more

 

New Analytical Approach to Determining Minerals in Coal and Ash Products Using X-Ray Diffraction

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C505901/02/1998
Author: Les Dale, John Patterson, CE Matulis, JC Taylor | CSIRO Energy Technology

Background Coal mineral matter, particularly its composition, plays an important role in all phases of coal science from mine geology, resource development, preparation and utilisation. In the past, techniques available for determining individual mineral phases lacked the necessary ....  read more

 

New Approach to Determining Trace Elements in Coal

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C301530/07/1995
Author: Les S Dale, KW Riley | CISRO Energy Technology

Increasing concern on the environmental impact of electricity generation from coal-fired power plants has focussed greater attention on the levels of trace elements in thermal coals. This has been mainly due to current and proposed legislation in may countries which places limits on the ....  read more

 

New Method for Determining Chlorine in Coal

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C605401/05/1998
Author: Les Dale, KW Riley | CSIRO Energy Technology

A new reference method based on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been developed to more accurately measure chlorine in coal.  Accurate chlorine measurement is critical for some coal producers. Elevated levels of chlorine in coal can cause corrosion problems as well as having the ....  read more

 

NOx Formation: Technology Review

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C905601/08/2000
Author: Rod Boyd, PF Nelson, BR McEwan, TH Nguyen | Pacific Power International, CSIRO Energy Technology, Australian Black Coal Utilisation CRC

The prime objective of project C9056 was to provide the coal industry with an understanding of the current state of knowledge about NOx formation during PF combustion. In doing this the study aimed to:

a) Clarify current understanding of the separate influences of coal ....  read more

 

Optimisation of the Improved Ash Fusion Test

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C406015/12/1995
Author: Charles Coin, H Kahraman, Ashley Reifenstein | ACIRL

A new method of the measurement of Ash Fusion Temperatures has been developed using essentially the same equipment as is used for the measurement of ash fusibility under Standards such as AS1038.15-87 and ASTM D1857-87. However, unlike the standard method the new method produces quantitative ....  read more

 

Options for Upgrading the ACIRL Pilot Combustion Facility

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C1400822/12/2005
Author: Anthony Campisi, Don Holcombe | HRL Technology, ACIRL

For about twenty years the pilot-scale combustion test facility run by ACIRL at Riverview Queensland has provided a service to the coal industry, whereby the performance of coals in pulverised-fuel fired power plant is simulated. This service enables coal producers and users to evaluate ....  read more

 

Practical Application of the Improved Ash Fusion Test

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C505706/01/1999
Author: H Kahraman, Adrian Reifenstein, Charles Coin | ACIRL Ltd, University of Queensland

The main objective of the present report is to investigate the practical applicability of the Improved Ash Fusion Test for a suite of selected coals that were previously investigated in ACARP Project C3097 Evaluate Combustion Behaviour of Australian Export and Overseas Low Rank Coal ....  read more

 

Predicting Pulveriser Performance

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C1306201/07/2004
Author: Philip Bennett | CoalTech

This project aims to demonstrate that the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) coupled with standard Petrographic Analysis can be used to greatly improve the prediction of mill power requirements, mill throughput and product size distribution using existing data generated in a pilot scale ....  read more

 

Prediction of Ash Phase Equilibria using FACT Models

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C1005801/08/2004
Author: Eugene Jak, Dmitry Saulov | CCSD, University of Queensland

The behaviour of mineral matter at high temperatures in coal utilisation technologies is a major issue that influences coal value, marketing and resource utilisation. A wide variety of phenomena, such as the formation of slagging and fouling deposits in pf combustion, agglomeration in ....  read more

 

Prediction of NOx Emissions

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C705301/12/2000
Author: Ken Sullivan, Phil Bennett, Allan Lowe, Steve Visona | Australian Black Coal CRC, Coaltech, Pacific Power International, Sigma Process Solutions

This report is a compilation of three separate but related studies, conducted as part of a major NOx emissions project by the Black Coal CRC.

The first study, conducted by CRE Group Ltd in the UK and managed by Ken Sullivan and Associates, tested eight Australian coals using laboratory ....  read more

 

QEMSCAN for Characterisation of Coal and Utilisation By-Products

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C1407301/05/2008
Author: David French, Colin Ward, Alan Butcher | CSIRO Energy Technology, University of New South Wales, Intellection

QEMSCAN is an automated electron beam image analysis technique, originally developed by CSIRO, Division of Minerals and now by a CSIRO spin-off company Intellection Pty. Ltd., which has been widely applied in the minerals industry. However, its use in the coal and related industries has been ....  read more

 

Relating Coal Properties to Ash Deposition & Slagging: Tools for Investigation of Deposit Samples

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C1006001/11/2002
Author: Terry Wall, Lisa Elliott, Dong-ke Zhang, David French, Bob Creelman, Sushill Gupta, Hari Babu Vuthaluru | University of Newcastle, Curtin University of Technology, CSIRO Energy Technology, RA Creelman and Associates

Several theoretical and analytical tools to characterise ash-related problems in pf boilers, including slagging, fouling, erosion and heat transfer, have recently been developed. This study details the evaluation of these tools, particularly in distinguishing the impact of coal properties, ....  read more

 

Review of the State-of-the-Art in Coal Blending for Power Generation

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C905401/02/2001
Author: Terry Wall, Liza Elliott, Dick Sanders, Ashley Conroy | Australian Black Coal Utilisation CRC, Quality Coal Consulting, Rio Tinto Technical Services

The review has considered the available information on coal blends from two points of view -firstly, coal properties and their additivity and secondly, the performance of blends in pulverised fuel (pf) firing. The review has concluded that the level of understanding on properties ....  read more

 

Review of Trace Elements in Coal

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C1102001/07/2003
Author: Les Dale | CSIRO Energy Technology

Coal contains a wide range of trace elements, predominantly associated with the various minerals which are the constituents of the inorganic matter. The mineral matter is the precursor of the ash formed during combustion.

Many trace elements present in coal are ....  read more

 

Standard Analytical Methods for Trace Elements in Coal

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C506301/05/1997
Author: Les Dale, K Riley | CSIRO Energy Technology

The levels of trace elements in thermal coals are coming under increased scrutiny by power generating companies because of the potential environmental impact from atmospheric emissions of trace elements and their leaching from ash disposal systems. In some countries there are legislated ....  read more

 

The Application of Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) to Coal Ash Characterisation and Ash Fusion T

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C505801/03/1997
Author: Harry Hurst | CSIRO Energy Technology

This report presents the results of a scoping study which details the potential for application of Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) combined with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), for investigation of the ash fusion characteristics of thermal coals. DTA/TGA results have been recorded on ....  read more

 

The Behaviour of Export Thermal Coals

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C301101/05/1997
Author: Don Holcombe, Adrian Reifenstein, H Kahraman, CG Thomas, ME Gosnell | ACIRL, CSIRO Energy Technology

The combustion behaviour of inertinite and vitrinite macerals in coal were studied by two methods: Drop Tube Furnace (ACIRL) and Laser Nanoreactor (CSIRO).

 ....  read more

 

The Improved Grindability Test: Comparisons with HGI

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C1306530/06/2005
Author: Dick Sanders | QCC Resources

The Hardgrove Grindability Index test, developed in 1932, is universally used in specifications for coal purchase and power station pulveriser design, to indicate the grinding property of coal and other commodities. It has, however, three deficiencies:

  • it uses only the
 ....  read more

 

The Minamata Convention On Mercury Implications And Responses For The Coal Industry

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C1900901/03/2014
Author: Peter Nelson and Hugh Malfroy | Macquarie University

The objectives of this ACARP project were twofold:

· To produce regular briefing documents for ACARP on the development of a global mercury treaty; this report is the fourth and final of these documents;

· To facilitate Australian expert involvement in the Global Mercury ....  read more

 

Trace Element Deportment in Combustion Processes

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C1005701/03/2007
Author: MI Attalla, S Morgan, Ken Riley, G Bryant, Peter Nelson | CCSD, CSIRO Energy Technology, University of Newcastle, Macquarie University

Coal combustion is an important anthropogenic source of semi-volatile trace elements such as As, Hg, Cd, Se, Pb and Zn to the environment. These emissions are of significance because of potential environmental impacts on human and ecosystem health.

These metals are known to be ....  read more

 

Trace Element Leaching From Fly Ash from Australian Power Stations

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C805101/02/2001
Author: John Killingley, Stephen McEvoy, Cihannur Dokumcu, Jenny Stauber, Les Dale | CSIRO Energy Technology

Coal-fired power stations produce large quantities of waste ash and fly ash represents around 80-90% of the total produced. Fly ash contains many trace elements of environmental concern that may become mobile in the ash dam water resulting in the potential to impact on the surrounding ....  read more

 

Trace Element Speciation and Deportment: A Review of Current Status and Needs

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C1506601/09/2007
Author: Peter Nelson | Macquarie University, CCSD

ACARP has funded an extensive program of work on trace elements, both directly and indirectly through funding provided to the CRC for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD). In this report this work is critically reviewed, together with relevant international research. 

 ....  read more

 

Trace Elements in Internationally Traded Thermal Coals

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C309630/03/1995
Author: Les Dale | CSIRO Energy Technology

Trace elements in coal are receiving greater attention in the assessment of the environmental impact of electricity generation from coal-fired power stations. The levels of many trace elements of environmental concern are now assuming greater importance in terms of emission of air toxics, ....  read more

 

Use of a Laboratory Scale Method for Assessing Ash Deposition Characteristics of Australian Coals in Utility Boilers

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C805401/09/2003
Author: MW Lewitt, Ken Sullivan, Michael Whitehouse | Casella CRE Energy, KM Sullivan & Associates

The deposition of ash in power station boilers can lead to a loss in efficiency and availability. Also, slag deposited around low NOX burners and on furnace walls can lead to poor boiler performance, high furnace temperatures and increases in NOX emissions. Reliable means of minimising the ....  read more

 

Underground

Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C25070Shuttle Car Steering System Optimisation

The condition of roadways in underground mines is of great importance, a...

C20041Polymer-Based Alternative To Steel Mesh For Coal Mine Strata Reinforcement

The report details work undertaken to develop a polymer-based alternativ...

C22003Investigation Of The Potential Lightning Impacts On Underground Coal Mines

The objective of this research was to develop and apply computer mod...

Underground

Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C19023MWD For Super-Resolution Control Of R.A.B. Drilled Blast-Hole Stand-Off Distances

Open-cut coal mine blasting losses are serious. Incorrect blast stan...

C21005RAB Drill Rig Top Of Coal Detection While Drilling

Accurately detecting the approaching top of a coal seam prior to blastin...

C24064Top Of Coal Detection In A Rotary Air Blast Drill Rig

Accurately detecting the approaching top of a coal seam prior to bla...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C24046Online Particle Size Monitoring In Coal Preparation

The principle of using laser diffraction as a means of measuring a v...

C24048Thickener Underflow Monitor

The aim of this project was to develop an instrument that is capable of ...

C24044RFID Residence Time Modelling

The project had two main objectives, the first to provide residence ...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C24060Structural Differences Between Coking Coals Of The Sydney Basin And Other Sources

Cokes made from Australian coals of relatively low fluidity can have...

C25045Stage One - Assessment Of In Situ High-Temperature Strength Of Cokes

A typical high-CSR Australian coke was subjected to high-temperature...

C24056Relationship Between Internal Pressure And Coke Strength And Implications For Semi Soft Coking Coals In Blends

The objective of this project was to explore the relationships between t...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C24017Improving Methods For Quantifying Fugitive Emissions From Open Cut Coal Mining

Fugitive emissions from open cut coal mines are usually estimated fo...

C21065Flame Arresting Mechanisms And Flameproof Device For VAM Mitigation

The overall goal of this project was to study the gas flammability limit...

c21064Development Of A Catalytic Mitigation System For VAM - Stage 3 - 20 Litre Per Min VAM Flow Technical Development Unit

This report describes work undertaken towards the development of a p...

Mine Site Greenhouse Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

C19025Governance Strategies To Manage And Monitor Cumulative Impacts At The Local And Regional Level

ACARP levy contributors should order this report in the normal manner – ...

Mining And The Community

NERDDC

National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook

NERDDC