ACARP ACARP ACARP ACARP
Technical Market Support                          reports

Technical Market Support

Our work in this area is aimed at understanding the properties of Australian coals which impact on market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of our coals over our competitors. The major markets for Australian coals are electricity generation and iron production.

ACARP has also published a series of whitepapers in this area:

Coal Nitrogen Report
Inertinite Report
Trace Elements in Coal
Electrostatic Precipitation
The Hardgrove Grindability Index


Metallurgical Coal (65 Reports)

A Fractographic Approach to Understanding the Mechanisms of Coke Breakage

Get Report
C2203603/11/2014
Author: Richard Roest, Hannah Lomas and Merrick Mahoney | University of Newcastle

The prediction of strength of coke produced from a coal (either singly or in a blend) is a key input into valuing the coal. Current models are largely empirical and often fail when used for coal with properties outside the data used to develop the model. This project aims to take techniques ....  read more

 

Abradability of Australian Cokes

Get Report
C309804/08/1998
Author: Charles Coin | ACIRL

The Surface Breakage Rate Constant (SBRC) is an index of coal quality derived from tumbling coke in a conventional drum but with continuous removal of the fines. SBRC has been thought to be related to the tensile  ....  read more

 

Alternative Method for Assessing Coking Coal Plasticity

Get Report
C1306801/07/2008
Author: Dzuy Nguyen, Susan Woodhouse, Merrick Mahoney | University of Adelaide, BHP Billiton Newcastle Technology Centre

Traditional plasticity measurements for coal have a number of limitations associated with the reproducibility of the tests and their use in predicting coking behaviour. This report reviews alternative rheological methods for characterising the plastic behaviour of coking coals. It reviews the ....  read more

 

Behaviour of Coal Injected into Molten Baths

Get Report
C506101/05/2000
Author: David Langberg, Xun Liu, AK Kyllo | GK Williams CRC, CSIRO Minerals

During the past 30 years there has been a major trend in the metallurgical industry towards the use of high intensity bath smelting reactors for large-scale production of metals. Coal is commonly used as a fuel and/or reductant in these reactors.

GK Williams Cooperative Research Centre ....  read more

 

Behaviour of Coke Mineral Matter in the Blast Furnace

Get Report
C1905201/09/2013
Author: David French, Richard Sakurovs and Mihaela Grigore | CSIRO

A previous ACARP project (C14074, Coke Mineral Matter Reactions) presented the results of a study of the role of mineral matter and mineral matter reactions in the degradation of coke through their influence upon coke reactivity and coke strength.

 

The results of the study ....  read more

 

Carbonisation Heat Transfer Predictive Capability

Get Report
C1407221/07/2006
Author: David Jenkins | CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences

The objectives of this project were to:

  • Develop an enhanced model of heat transfer in a slot type coke oven, based on the fundamentals of heat transfer and using a predictive model of thermal properties of the charge, based on the composition of the coal
 ....  read more

 

Characterisation of Australian and Indian Coals and their Cokes from Stamp and Top Charged Coke Ovens

Get Report
C1905125/02/2014
Author: Sushil Gupta, Graham O’Brien, David French and Dennis Meng | University of New South Wales, CSIRO

Due to strong demand and declining reserves of premium coking coals, new coal reserves are being developed, which are often perceived to be of low premium on the basis of relatively lower coke strength after reaction (CSR) values. In India and China, low premium coals have been used in coke ....  read more

 

Characterise Cokes for Strength and Reactivity - Stage Two

Get Report
C1804318/04/2016
Author: Philip Bennett, William Cash | ALS Coal

To better understand how coal transforms into coke requires the ability to relate the main microstructural and microtextural features of the coke to properties of the coal. This project aims to identify the influence of these features on coke quality.

 

There are two parts to ....  read more

 

Coal Characterisation for PCI

Get Report
C700122/12/1997
Author: Philip Bennett | Coaltech

A technical review has been undertaken on coal characterisation of Pulverised Coal Injection (PCI) with the aim to prioritise research areas where Australian research organisations can make a significant contribution to the understanding of the impact of coal characteristics on PCI. ....  read more

 

Coal Dilatation

Get Report
C1705425/05/2009
Author: John J Kelly | BMA Barney Point Laboratory

There are various national and international standards for Coal Laboratories to use for the Dilatation test.  The results reported vary depending on which standard is used which causes issues when results are used at an international level and particularly relevant to coal sales ....  read more

 

Coal Fluidity, Stockpiling and Coke Quality

Get Report
C1005501/05/2003
Author: Jeff Keating, Merrick Mahoney, Richard Sakurovs | BHP Billiton, CSIRO Energy Technology

One perception in the marketplace is that coking coal quality decreases during transport and stockpiling due to ageing. This ageing is often estimated using plasticity measures with the assumption that plasticity is an indicator of coal oxidation and, therefore, an indicator of potential ....  read more

 

Coke Reactivity and Characterisation

Get Report
C1205701/03/2008
Author: Philip Bennett, Adrian Reifenstein, Graham O’Brien, Barry Jenkins | ACIRL, CSIRO Exploration & Mining, Jenkins-Kwan Technology

Coke quality in the blast furnace is measured by its resistance to degradation. The roles of coke as a fuel and as a reducing agent are not limiting factors in terms of blast furnace performance. However, the role of the coke as a permeable medium is crucial in economic blast furnace ....  read more

 

Coke Reactivity Test: Critical Parameters

Get Report
C1200401/06/2003
Author: Adrian Reifenstein | ACIRL

A Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 18894 has been prepared titled "Coke - Determination of coke reactivity index (CRI) and coke strength after reaction (CSR)". The technical committee has the role of standardising common practice. The Australian members of that committee do ....  read more

 

Coke: Its Constitution and Utilisation

Get Report
C1101701/06/2008
Author: Ruth Callcott, Tom Callcott | Callcott Consulting

Coke made in coke ovens from coal and used in iron blast furnaces is a strategically critical manufactured product for contemporary and future world iron production. The important physical, chemical and microscopic properties of cokes are examined and explained, drawing on both an exhaustive ....  read more

 

Commissioned Study on PCI Research and Future Directions

Get Report
C309930/08/1994
Author: Phil Bennett, Don Holcombe | Energy Tactics, ACIRL

This commissioned review examines the current status and future directions for pulverised coal injection (PCI) into blast furnaces used in the production of pig iron. It has been undertaken to assist the Australian coal industry to identify possible future industry funded research. This ....  read more

 

Design a Test Energy Recovery Coke Oven

Get Report
C1306401/05/2005
Author: Louis Wibberley, Matthew Searles, Aaron Cottrell | CCSD, CSIRO Energy Technology

The objective of the study was to develop a concept design for a test non-recovery coke oven, which was required to be relocatable.

The report summarises available knowledge on full scale ovens, the development of estimates for missing information, and the development of ....  read more

 

Determination Of A Theoretically Based Coke Strength Index Or Indices Based On Drum Tests

Get Report
C2000901/05/2013
Author: Philip Bennett, Frank Shi, Nick Andriopoulos | ALS Coal, JK MRC

Coke quality is commonly characterised by tumble drum strength tests, typically on coke produced in pilot scale coke ovens. The empirical nature of the commonly used suite of tests usually requires that all the major coke tests need to be completed for a single coke. Additionally, the ....  read more

 

Determine The Relationship Between Roga Test Results And Caking Index Results For Australian Coking Coals

Get Report
C2001101/04/2012
Author: Narelle Burns | ALS Coal

This project was aimed at exploring critical factors of the Roga and Caking Index, investigate the appropriateness of the precision parameters outlined in the two standard methods, confirm that a relationship between Roga and Caking Index exists for a range of Australian coking coals and use ....  read more

 

Elucidation of the Effects of Minerals on Coke Behaviour in the Blast Furnace

Get Report
C1005401/08/2002
Author: Grant Quinn, Basim Faraj, Ruth Callcott, Tom Callcott | International Coal Consultants, Faraj Consultants, Callcott Consulting

The objectives of this project were to determine whether minerals in coke have an effect on hot coke strength, and if so, elucidate the mechanism(s) by which this occurs under blast furnace conditions. A secondary objective was to demonstrate the use of the Environmental Scanning Electron ....  read more

 

Estimating the Fusible Content of Individual Coal Grains and its Application in Coke Making

Get Report
C2105901/05/2014
Author: Karryn Warren, Gregorie Krahenbuhl, Merrick Mahoney, Graham O’Brien and Priyanthi Hapugoda | CSIRO

For coals of suitable rank the vitrinite, liptinite and some of the inertinite macerals are fusible during coking and the minerals and remaining inertinite macerals do not fuse. The amount of fusible inertinite present in a coal varies between coals extracted from differing coal basins and even ....  read more

 

Extension of a Theoretically Based Coke Strength Index to Small Scale Coke Oven Samples and Adhesion Controlled Cokes

Get Report
C2305629/04/2016
Author: Philip Bennett | ALS Coal

Assessment of increasingly subtle changes in coal quality, either potential improvements or deteriorations, is clouded by the deficiencies in drum tests routinely conducted on pilot scale coke. When coking tests are performed on coke produced at the small scale (8kg feed coal) the comparison ....  read more

 

Factors Affecting Coke Size and Fissuring during Cokemaking

Get Report
C1005201/10/2003
Author: Merrick Mahoney, Jeff Keating, Andrew Swann, Gareth Penny | BHP Billiton

The literature on the mechanism of fissuring during coking was reviewed and alternative approaches to the modelling of the fissuring mechanism evaluated. A new mechanism and model for the physics of fissuring was proposed. The model incorporates:

 ....  read more

 

Factors Affecting Coke Size and Fissuring During Cokemaking Part 2

Get Report
C1306701/12/2007
Author: Merrick Mahoney, Jeff Keating, Susan Woodhouse | BHP Billiton Newcastle Technology Centre

This work addressed the mechanism of fissuring during metallurgical cokemaking and extends on a previous ACARP project. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the mechanism by an integrated modelling work / experimental program. The work points to opportunities for controlling ....  read more

 

Fundamental Reasons For Different Coking Behaviour Of Coals From Different Basins - Behaviour Of Semi-inerts

Get Report
C2203701/08/2014
Author: Rohan Stanger, Wei Xie, Merrick Mahoney, John Lucas and Terry Wall | The University of Newcastle

Coking coal quality is based on a number of indices which characterise coke quality. While a number of standard tests exist to compare coals, some have well known flaws and are often designed to determine coal value rather than reflect real behaviour on a coke oven. In the case of coals from ....  read more

 

Fusibility Assessment for Coal

Get Report
C406201/02/1996
Author: RWT Wiliins, CFK Diessel, CP Buckinham and L Gammidge | CSIRO Petroleum Resources

The aim of the project was to calibrate the CSIRO scanning fluorescence laser microprobe (SLFMP) against the results of coal-to-coke mass balance calculations to provide a rapid and inexpensive method of assessing the proportion of fusible macerals in single seam coals and blends. In the ....  read more

 

Fusion of Coking Blends

Get Report
C506201/08/1997
Author: Richard Sakurovs, L Burke, E Gawronski | CSIRO Energy Technology

The results from a previous ACARP project, "Improved Laboratory Methods to Evaluate Properties of Coking Blends", provided the first direct evidence that when blends of some coals were heated, the coals interacted in a way that affected the extent to which the blends fused. ....  read more

 

High Rate PCI and the Interaction with Coke Quality

Get Report
C705501/09/2001
Author: Brian England, Jeffery Keating, Mark Mason, Harold Rogers | BHP Billiton Innovation

This substantially experimental study was aimed at investigating the interaction of coke with pulverised coal, under conditions configured to simulate coke at the back of the raceway of an ironmaking blast furnace under a regime of high rate pulverised coal injection. In the test rig used for ....  read more

 

Impact of Milling Techniques on Coke Oven Feed

Get Report
C805705/10/2001
Author: Frank Shi, Tom Callcott, Ruth Callcott, Joan Esterle | JKMRC, Callcott Consulting, CSIRO Exploration & Mining

The international export market for Australian coals is dominated by coking coal sales. However, few Australian coking coal producers process their coal domestically to produce direct coke oven feed. Therefore there is little understanding of how best to prepare each coal to achieve optimum ....  read more

 

Implications of Coking Conditions on CSR

Get Report
C2203904/02/2015
Author: Philip Bennett, Medini Wimalaratne, Lauren Johnson and James Bottle | ALS Coal

Coking is one of the main contributors to the quality of the resultant coke and therefore will influence the CSR of the coke. Laboratories worldwide use their own devised methodology for coke making, which is cause for concern since CSR results cannot be compared without a measure of error. ....  read more

 

Improved Laboratory Methods to Evaluate Properties of Coking Blends

Get Report
C301417/06/1996
Author: Richard Sakurovs, L Burke, Y Pang, A McCutheon, R Tyler | CSIRO Energy Technology

A range of Australian coking coals were blended and their behaviour during carbonisation examined to see if their fusibility was affected by interactions between ....  read more

 

Improved Measurement of Handleability for Quality Control of Australian Coals in PCI and Carbonisation Applications

Get Report
C1101601/06/2005
Author: N Black, Michael Whitehouse, Ken Sullivan | Casella CRE Energy - UK, KM Sullivan and Associates

The aim of this project was to develop a technique by which the handleability of Australian coals in pulverised coal injection systems for blast furnace applications can be more reliably predicted and compared with other international coals on an equal footing. 

 ....  read more

 

Improved Understanding of Coal Exploration Samples by Coal Grain Analysis

Get Report
C2004001/02/2013
Author: G O’Brien, B Firth, K Warren and P Hapugoda | CSIRO

Over the past six years, CSIRO has used optical imaging and Coal Grain Analysis (CGA) to obtain and use compositional information on individual coal grains for studies on product coals, raw coals and tailing samples. The output from a CGA measurement provides a reflectance fingerprint on the ....  read more

 

Inertinite Fusibility Determination

Get Report
C1306601/08/2008
Author: Philip Bennett, Daniel Rigg | ALS - ACIRL

The aim of this project is was to develop a simple tool that allows the determination of the fusibility of inertinite in Australian coals.   The first step in determining the fusible inertinite component is to convert the petrographic analysis to a mass basis. This requires ....  read more

 

Influence of Organic Liquids on Coal Carbonisation Properties

Get Report
C1705103/11/2010
Author: Simon Iveson & Kevin Galvin | University of Newcastle

A two-stage study was undertaken to establish what effect, if any, perchloroethylene has on the coking properties of coal. In Stage 1, the fluidity of 5 samples of a high fluidity coal (Illawara coal measure, mid-high rank) was studied over a 64-week period. Samples A, C, D and E were stored ....  read more

 

International Comparison of Inertinite Reflectograms and Fluorograms

Get Report
C309424/04/1995
Author: CFK Diessel | University of Newcastle

Inertinite is generally perceived to be a troublesome group of coal minerals, mainly because of the variable reactivity of its members in reference to most industrial processes. Although several Australian export coals contain large amounts of inertinite, their technological performance ....  read more

 

Links Between Microstructure Development in Softening Coal and the Characteristics Controlling Coke Quality

Get Report
C2304801/08/2015
Author: Karen Steel, Robin Dawson, David Jenkins, Robin Pearce, Merrick Mahoney, Hannah Lomas, Richard Roest, Harold Rogers | University of Queensland, CSIRO, University of Newcastle, University of Wollongong

The goal of this project was to obtain an understanding of the microstructural features in coke responsible for its strength and elucidate the mechanisms involved in the formation of those features. To achieve this goal a number of tools were developed and used in combination. Micro-CT analysis ....  read more

 

Literature Survey on Non-Recovery Coke Ovens

Get Report
C605601/02/1998
Author: Adrian Reinfenstein, Hakan Kahraman, Charles Coin | ACIRL

The aim of the project is understanding the coal quality and operational factors which affect coke quality in non-recovery coke ovens and to investigate means of ameliorating inferior coking behaviour.

Coke is primarily consumed by the steel industry where it is the principal fuel ....  read more

 

Measurement Of The Plastic Properties Of Coals

Get Report
C1905301/07/2012
Author: Lauren Johnson & Philip Bennett | ALS COAL

Part 1 - Influence of bulk density

Part 2 - Understanding the Sapozhnikov Test and factors that influence the determination of Plastic Properties

The force that a coal exerts on the coke oven walls can have deleterious effect on coke batteries if it is excessive.  The most ....  read more

 

Mechanistic Model for the Understanding of Sole Heated Ovens

Get Report
C2304701/07/2016
Author: Merrick Mahoney, David Jenkins, Karen Steel | University of Newcastle, CSIRO, University of Queensland

A method for modelling sole heated ovens (SHO) based on fundamentals of heat transfer, particle dilatation and gas flow has been developed. It has been successfully applied to the Sapozhnikov SHO and University of Newcastle (UoN) SHO. The model estimates both the shrinkage and plastic layer ....  read more

 

Microstructure Variability in Coke and its Effect on Coke Properties

Get Report
c2105630/04/2013
Author: David Jenkins, Anthony Miller, Dadong Wang, Robin Pearce, Sheridan Mayo, Merrick Mahoney | CSIRO, University of Newcastle

The objectives of this project were to:

· Obtain micro-CT images of the microstructure of various cokes;

· Use the microstructure information to estimate strength and reactivity properties of the cokes using a finite element approach;

· Compare the estimated ....  read more

 

Mineral Matter Reactions in Cokes

Get Report
C1407401/07/2009
Author: D. French, R. Sakurovs, M. Grigore | CSIRO Energy Technology

Some cokes appear to be particularly susceptible to weakening in the blast furnace. A mechanism which has been postulated to explain this is silica reduction by coke. Theoretically, silicates could react with the coke at high temperature to produce silicon carbide and carbon monoxide with the ....  read more

 

Optical Image Analysis of Coke Structure and the Effects of Structural Parameters on Coke Strength

Get Report
C2305101/06/2015
Author: Eugene Donskoi, Andrei Poliakov and Merrick Mahoney | CSIRO, University of Newcastle

Understanding of coke strength and its dependence on original coal blend parameters is one of the major technical marketing support tasks required to improve prediction of the performance of coals and blends during coking.

This project applied novel structural identification and ....  read more

 

Optimisation of the Gieseler Fluidity, Dilatation and Crucible Swelling Number of Australian Coking Coals

Get Report
C906130/06/2000
Author: Adrian Reifenstein, Charles Coin, Paul Sullivan | ACIRL

Crucible Swelling Number, Audibert-Arnu dilatometer and Gieseler plastometer residua were collected for a range of Australian coals. The samples were examined at the optical microscope and hand specimen level, to understand the processes that influenced the results. This was with an aim to ....  read more

 

PART A - Development of a Drop Tube Furnace based PCI combustion test & PART B - Review of International PCI Test Rigs

Get Report
C1904901/05/2013
Author: Liza Elliott, Harold Rogers, Hongyu Li, Terry Wall | The University of Newcastle

The aim of this project was to assess the suitability of drop tube furnaces as a tool for assessing coal combustibility for use in pulverised coal injection (PCI) into blast furnaces. Drop tube furnaces (DTF) are far less expensive than pilot scale PCI rigs, they are reliable and available at ....  read more

 

Part II: A Coke Analogue to Examine the Effect of Mineralogy on Coke Reactivity

Get Report
C2304901/03/2016
Author: Zhe Wang, Raymond Longbottom and Brian Monaghan | University of Wollongong

Having established coke analogue as a tool for studying the mineralogical effects on the reactivity of metallurgical cokes in ACARP Project C23049, the primary aim of this extension was to expand our understanding of the effects minerals on coke reactivity in the UOW pseudo CRI ....  read more

 

PCI - Impact of Blast Furnace Operation

Get Report
C1506926/03/2007
Author: Philip Bennett | CoalTech

The objective of this report is to review the literature on the impact of high coal injection rates on blast furnace performance and summarise the issues faced by blast furnace operators, current trends in addressing these issues and the likely future requirements for PCI coal.

 ....  read more

 

Physical and Chemical Interactions Occurring During Coke Making and their Influence on Coke Strength

Get Report
C2405501/10/2016
Author: Karen Steel, Robin Dawson, Wei Xie, Rohan Stanger, Terry Wall and Merrick Mahoney | The University of Queensland, The University of Newcastle

This project contains a study on the interactions occurring between coal macerals from single coals and between the macerals from different coals in blends. The goal was to detect interactions and to determine their nature, i.e. whether they occur through physical or chemical mechanisms. To ....  read more

 

Predicting Dilatation Of Coal Blends From Models Of Softening, Bubble Growth And Gas Transport

Get Report
C2105730/04/2013
Author: David Jenkins, Merrick Mahoney | CSIRO, University of Newcastle

The objectives of this project were to

· Modify/develop existing models of bubble growth and collapse within a viscous fluid, gas evolution and gas flow in porous media that represent the conditions prevailing within the plastic phase of coal;

· Use the developed model to ....  read more

 

Predicting the Coking Properties of Blends

Get Report
C705401/03/2000
Author: Richard Sakurovs, Elizabeth Gawronski, Lindsay Burke | CSIRO Energy Technology

Eleven Australian coals, ranging in rank from 0.74% Rv, max to 1.68% Rv, max, that are or could be used in blends were obtained. Ten blends of these coals were prepared to the same "effective" rank and fluidity values. It was demonstrated that preparing blends to a fixed effective rank and ....  read more

 

Quality of Stamp Charged cokes and Stampability of Coals at Small Scale

Get Report
C2203522/12/2014
Author: Lauren Johnson, Philip Bennett, Sarah Grimish | ALS Coal

The stamp charging of coal has emerged as a widely-used, effective treatment to improve the quality of coke produced in coke-making operations. Traditionally, expensive prime hard coking coal has been used to make coke with the required properties to operate blast furnaces effectively. Through ....  read more

 

Quantifying The Influence That The Composition Of The Individual Coal Grains In Coke Oven Feed Has On Coke Quality

Get Report
C1604701/12/2010
Author: Graham O’Brien, Merrick Mahoney, Alan Pickup, K Warren | CSIRO Exploration & Mining, BHP Billiton Innovation, BMA Coal

Three Australian coals from different coal measures were washed to produce a vitrinite rich fraction (VRF) and an inertinite rich fraction (IRF). Five blend samples of each coal with the same overall bulk quality and grind but different VRF and IRF grinds were produced. These blends were then ....  read more

 

Reactivity of Cokes with Gases Under Blast Furnace Conditions

Get Report
C905201/08/2002
Author: Richard Sakurovs, Lindsay Burke and Elizabeth Gawronski | CSIRO Energy Technology

The NSC reactivity test is often criticised for not being able to accurately predict performance of cokes in the blast furnace. One explanation commonly proposed for this lack is that the gas used in the NSC test, pure carbon dioxide, is different to the gas that coke is exposed to in blast ....  read more

 

Relationship between Internal Pressure and Coke Strength and Implications for Semi Soft Coking Coals in Blends

Get Report
C2105801/09/2014
Author: Philip Bennett, Karen Steel, Matthew Dick, Fengyuan Yu | ALS Coal

The development of new coking coal resources around the world and the changing coal quality from existing resources will require steel producers to examine new blend options for the feed to their coke ovens to maintain coke quality. The value of a coal depends on the contribution of that coal ....  read more

 

Relationship Between Internal Pressure and Coke Strength and Implications for Semi Soft Coking Coals in Blends

Get Report
C2405624/02/2017
Author: Philip Bennett and Karen Steel | ALS Coal and The University of Queensland

The objective of this project was to explore the relationships between the expansion and contraction behaviour of coals and blends of coals during carbonisation and then relate this behaviour to the properties of the coke produced.  Two type of coke are recognised in this project:

 ....  read more

 

Review of Coke Quality Prediction Models

Get Report
C1101906/08/2005
Author: Adrian Reifenstein | ACIRL

This report reviews a range of coke quality prediction models, with separate sections for methods based on:

  • Petrography - Schapiro and Gray, Ammosov
  • Gieseler Plastometery - MOF Diagram
  • Dilatation - Simonis
  • Ultimate
 ....  read more

 

Stage One - Assessment of In Situ High-Temperature Strength of Cokes

Get Report
C2504504/04/2017
Author: Pramod Koshy, Michael Drew, Sushil Gupta and CC Sorrell | University of New South Wales and Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation

A typical high-CSR Australian coke was subjected to high-temperature tests to determine its compression and creep-compression properties and the associated microstructural and mineralogical modifications.  The major findings are as follows:

· The unique high-temperature ....  read more

 

Structural Differences Between Coking Coals of the Sydney Basin and Other Sources

Get Report
C2406012/04/2017
Author: Richard Sakurovs, Mihaela Grigore, Lukas Koval and Alireza Keshavarz | CSIRO

Cokes made from Australian coals of relatively low fluidity can have better strength and reactivity values than their equivalents prepared from European or American coals. Although this systematic difference is well known, it has long been an issue in contract negotiations in sales of ....  read more

 

Synthetic Sulphur Calibrant Method

Get Report
C1905001/10/2013
Author: Danny Hibbert and Nick Miller | HRL Technology

Stage 2 (August 2014)

In this project extension, the method for determination of sulphur in coal using a synthetic calibrant was further developed and validated for suitability in an ILS.  The current SA (Standards Australia) method AS 1038.6.3.3 for Total Sulfur was modified ....  read more

 

The Classification and Interpretation of Coke Textures- A Literature Review

Get Report
C2001025/06/2012
Author: Lauren Johnson, Philip Bennett | ALS Coal

Despite the simple chemical composition of metallurgical coke, the structure is complex, consisting of a network of variously sized pores and walls of varying thickness. Adding to this complexity is the varying forms of the carbon in the pore walls which have different microproperties and vary ....  read more

 

The Strength Controlling Properties of Coke and their Relationship to Tumble Drum Indices and Coal Type

Get Report
C906001/10/2002
Author: Nick Andriopoulos, Rod Dukino, Richard Sakurovs | BHP Billiton Minerals Technology, CSIRO Energy Technology

This project was carried out to address the problems of conventional tumble drum coke strength tests, which, despite their convenience, rank cokes differently and raise the question of which test best reflects the strength of coke under the breakage conditions of interest. These were addressed ....  read more

 

Thermal Study of the Coking Behaviour of Thermoplastic Coals

Get Report
C1506701/12/2007
Author: Vladimir Strezov, Anthony Morrison, Peter Nelson | Macquarie University

The objectives of this research were to apply laboratory bench-scale experiments to study the coking behaviour of Australian thermoplastic coals and correlate the results with coke tests obtained under large scale research coke oven conditions.  A novel thermoanalytical technique ....  read more

 

Understanding Coal Grain Effects On Coke Quality

Get Report
C2000801/08/2013
Author: Merrick Mahoney, Graham O’Brien, Priyanthi Hapugoda, Karryn Warren, David Riley & Liming Lu | University of Newcastle, CSIRO

The project extended the work on the application of coal grain analysis to understanding coking behaviour to two more Rangal coals. As previously coke oven charges were prepared with different coal grain compositions but the same overall grind and coal composition. The procedure successfully ....  read more

 

Understanding Coal Interactions in Coking Blends

Get Report
C1101824/11/2005
Author: Adrian Reifenstein | ACIRL

  • A tool that could accurately define the carrying capacity of a coal was not produced. In this regard, the program was unsuccessful. However, the program did provide sufficient information that would allow development of this tool in the future using different breeze
 ....  read more

 

Understanding Cokes Performance in Blast Furnace Conditions- Coke Strength Extension

Get Report
C1705007/11/2014
Author: Richard Roest, Hannah Lomas, Merrick Mahoney and Sushil Gupta | University of Newcastle, University of New South Wales

The performance of coke in the blast furnace ideally should include those properties of coke that reflect its resistance to degradation under the mechanical, chemical and thermal environment of the blast furnace. A previous collaboration between UNSW and Ruukki Works, Rahee, Finland, obtained ....  read more

 

Understanding Mineral Matter in Australian Coking Coals and PCI Coals

Get Report
C905901/09/2002
Author: Merrick Mahoney, Harold Rogers, Nick Andriopoulos, Raj Gupta | BHPBilliton Newcastle Technology Centre, University of Newcastle

Three coking coals and three PCI coals were selected to study the effect of coking and heating coals on the minerals present. The coals were selected to cover a wide range of mineral types. A number of techniques were used to characterise the mineral matter, including:

  • Powder X-ray
 ....  read more

 

Underground

Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C23005Use Of Plastic Metal In Underground Coal Mines For Minor Repair On Flameproof Equipment

The potential for a gas or dust explosion arising from hot work and ...

C25070Shuttle Car Steering System Optimisation

The condition of roadways in underground mines is of great importance, a...

C20041Polymer-Based Alternative To Steel Mesh For Coal Mine Strata Reinforcement

The report details work undertaken to develop a polymer-based alternativ...

Underground

Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C19023MWD For Super-Resolution Control Of R.A.B. Drilled Blast-Hole Stand-Off Distances

Open-cut coal mine blasting losses are serious. Incorrect blast stan...

C21005RAB Drill Rig Top Of Coal Detection While Drilling

Accurately detecting the approaching top of a coal seam prior to blastin...

C24064Top Of Coal Detection In A Rotary Air Blast Drill Rig

Accurately detecting the approaching top of a coal seam prior to bla...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C24046Online Particle Size Monitoring In Coal Preparation

The principle of using laser diffraction as a means of measuring a v...

C24048Thickener Underflow Monitor

The aim of this project was to develop an instrument that is capable of ...

C24044RFID Residence Time Modelling

The project had two main objectives, the first to provide residence ...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C24060Structural Differences Between Coking Coals Of The Sydney Basin And Other Sources

Cokes made from Australian coals of relatively low fluidity can have...

C25045Stage One - Assessment Of In Situ High-Temperature Strength Of Cokes

A typical high-CSR Australian coke was subjected to high-temperature...

C24056Relationship Between Internal Pressure And Coke Strength And Implications For Semi Soft Coking Coals In Blends

The objective of this project was to explore the relationships between t...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C24017Improving Methods For Quantifying Fugitive Emissions From Open Cut Coal Mining

Fugitive emissions from open cut coal mines are usually estimated fo...

C21065Flame Arresting Mechanisms And Flameproof Device For VAM Mitigation

The overall goal of this project was to study the gas flammability limit...

c21064Development Of A Catalytic Mitigation System For VAM - Stage 3 - 20 Litre Per Min VAM Flow Technical Development Unit

This report describes work undertaken towards the development of a p...

Mine Site Greenhouse Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

C19025Governance Strategies To Manage And Monitor Cumulative Impacts At The Local And Regional Level

ACARP levy contributors should order this report in the normal manner – ...

Mining And The Community

NERDDC

National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook

NERDDC