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Underground                                       reports

Underground

Our underground health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives include strengthening ventilation and gas management technology, minimising risks from fires and explosions, advancing emergency response technologies, reducing operating costs and improving reliability of subsidence predictions.


Mining Technology and Production (50 Reports)

A Real Time Response Measure for Longwall Face Strata Conditions

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C1501401/05/2007
Author: Bob Trueman | Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre

In an earlier project a robust methodology and “offline” software was developed for interpreting the shield leg pressure sensor data coming from a longwall face in the context of support strata interaction using a novel characteristic load cycle analysis concept. It is ....  read more

 

AFC Pan Stability Investigation

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C1901601/06/2013
Author: John Vazey | BMT WBM

This study aims at understanding the cause of Armoured Face Conveyor (AFC) pans "lifting" or "surfing" through the cut coal rather than following the floor of the cut. This has been an ongoing problem for underground coal mining operations, and has crippled the operation of ....  read more

 

Analysis and Design of Faceroad Roof Support (ADFRS) - A Roof Support Design Methodology for Longwall Installation Roadways

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C1900805/09/2012
Author: Mark Colwell, Russell Frith | Colwell Geotechnical Services

The aim of this project is to provide the Australian coal industry with a roof support design methodology for longwall installation roadways (ie faceroads) that can be utilised by colliery engineers who have sufficient experience and training in relation to underground coal mine strata ....  read more

 

Application of Longwall Top Coal Caving to Australian Operations

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C1104001/02/2004
Author: Y Cai, Bruce Hebblewhite, U Onder, B Xu, Mick Kelly, Barry Wright | CSIRO Exploration & Mining, University of New South Wales

The aim of this project was to provide the Australian underground coal mining industry with an up to date, state of the art summary of the Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) mining system and its potential for application in Australia. In supporting the project, ACARP requested that the ....  read more

 

Automated Mining Horizon Control Using Real-time Coal Seam Sensing

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C2201401/02/2015
Author: Jonathon Ralston and Andrew Strange | CSIRO

This report describes the outcomes of an 18 month ACARP-funded research project that focussed on improving the performance of sensing technology for automated coal mining horizon control. Achieving effective horizon control is fundamental for improving mining safety and productivity. However ....  read more

 

Chain Pillar Design (Calibration of ALPS)

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C603601/10/1998
Author: Mark Colwell, Russell Frith, Christopher Mark | Oceanic Coal, Colwell Geotechnical Services

The aim of this project is to provide the Australian coal industry with a chain pillar design methodology and computer based design tool that can be utilised by engineers and geologists who have sufficient experience and training in relation to underground coal mine strata mechanics. ....  read more

 

CM2010 Mandalong Trials

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C2201501/03/2016
Author: Peter Reid, Mark Dunn, David Reid | CSIRO

ACARP project C22015 has achieved a world-first by demonstrating the use of advanced inertial navigation technology to accurately monitor the path of a roadway development machine operating under full mining production conditions. This project was made possible through the cooperation and ....  read more

 

Coal Augering

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C305801/07/1995
Author: Frank Roxborough | University of New South Wales

The  Coal  Augering R & D project has  been  progressing in excess of two years and has reached  a point where it has proven  the  technical  feasibility  and practicalities of the  concept  and has identified a number of applications. ....  read more

 

Coal Augering

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C401601/04/1998
Author: Stan Coffey | Coal Augering

This project set out to demonstrate the application of an underground auger in coal operations.

Its primary objective was to move the prototype to a commercial system. This was achieved, and after a  ....  read more

 

Conformance Process for Specification and Acceptance Testing of LASC Automation Technology

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C1702201/10/2009
Author: Mark Dunn | CSIRO Exploration and Mining

The aim of this project was to develop an industry based conformance process for specification and acceptance testing of LASC compliance devices and applications. This compliance process will ensure that industry retains the flexibility of interchangeable components that are compatible with ....  read more

 

Determination of Permitted Maximum Capacitance Values for Intrinsically Safe Circuit for Underground Coal Mine Installations

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C1700524/08/2009
Author: Mohamed Abdelkrimi | NSW Department of Primary Industries

The currently published tables for maximum capacitances within the intrinsic safety standard (IEC / AS/NZS 60079-11) are believed to be erroneous at least as far as Group I is concerned.

This ACARP Project aims to define by testing the correct and reliable capacitive discharge ....  read more

 

Development and Demonstration of a Longwall Monitoring System for Operational Decision Making

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C401701/07/1996
Author: Russell Frith, Brian McCowan | ACIRL

This project had the basic objective of demonstrating that powered support monitoring data could be of use in face management and operational decision making on longwall faces. The project has shown quite clearly that this is the case and has made clear ....  read more

 

Development of a Portable Acoustic Bearing Fault Detection Monitor of Underground Conveyor Belts

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C401922/04/1996
Author: Peter Georgiou | Vipac Engineers & Scientists

Idler bearing failure on underground conveyors is a significant problem in the Coal Industry. Trunk conveyors in underground coal mines have around 5000 idler bearings per kilometre. With a normal life of about 5 years, ....  read more

 

Diesel Engine Management

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C1402801/12/2009
Author: Julian Greenwood, Terry O'Beirne, Dale Howard | SkillPro Services Pty Ltd

A programmable engine control unit (ECU) has been developed that has potential to be used by diesel engine and/or vehicle suppliers for underground coal mines. It has been retro-fitted to a modern common rail engine, replacing the manufacturer's (tamperproof) ECU, and tested extensively in ....  read more

 

Dynamic Longwall Equipment Location Model

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C2402101/06/2016
Author: Jonathon Ralston and John Malos | CSIRO

This report describes the outcomes of a 12 month ACARP-funded research project that explored the relationship between longwall equipment position requirements and the associated sensing specifications. This project was motivated by the fundamental need to achieve safer and more effective ....  read more

 

Explosives for the 21st Century: Stage 2

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C1403901/08/2008
Author: Alison Freeman, Duncan Chalmers | University of New South Wales

This project was funded in two stages - both published reports are sold together and summarised below:

-  C13025 Permitted Explosives for 21st Century

-  C14039 Permitted Explosives for 21st Century: Stage 2

C13025  Explosives in the 21st Century: ....  read more

 

Explosives in the 21st Century: Stage 1 - An Investigation into the Rationale of Explosive Used in Underground Coal Mines

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C1302501/05/2005
Author: Duncan Chalmers, Karen Freak, Alison Freeman | University of NSW

This project was funded in two stages - both published reports are sold together and summarised below:

-  C13025 Permitted Explosives for 21st Century

-  C14039 Permitted Explosives for 21st Century: Stage 2

C13025  Explosives in the 21st Century: ....  read more

 

Extended Influence of Geological Conditions and Structure on Longwall Geomechanics

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C702101/12/2001
Author: Michael Kelly, Xue Luo, S Craig | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

Although longwall mining is the principal source of coal from Australian underground mines, the geomechanics of rock failure around an operating longwall has not been clearly understood. In recent years, there have been significant events at many longwall mines associated with this knowledge ....  read more

 

Extraction Panel Guidelines for High Production Underground Auger Mining in Australian Conditions

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C1104101/09/2004
Author: Paul Buddery, David Hill | Strata Engineering

Underground augering has the potential to recover isolated, irregular pockets of coal that would ordinarily be discounted from reserves as being uneconomic or impractical to extract using the main mining system. A key design issue is the stability of narrow coal webs between auger holes and ....  read more

 

Face Width Optimisation in Both Longwall and Shortwall Caving Environments

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C501501/10/1997
Author: Russell Frith, Michael Creech, Andrew Williams | Strata Engineering (Australia), Oceanic Coal Australia

This project has conducted fundamental research into the weighting behaviour of thick and massive strata units in close proximity to longwall extractions, the effect on mining, and means of effective control (primarily restricted panel widths).  The impetus for the project ....  read more

 

Fibre-optic Conveyor Monitoring System

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C2101226/02/2014
Author: Saiied Aminossadati, Ben Yang | University of Queensland

This project aimed to develop a fibre optic-based distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system to monitor the temperature change of malfunctioning idlers for heavy-duty conveyor belts in underground coal mines. The main objectives of the project were to investigate various installation options ....  read more

 

Fitness of Longwall Powered Supports

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C1200701/04/2005
Author: Bob Trueman | JKMRC, University of Qld

Powered supports account for the majority of the capital expenditure for a longwall panel and are fundamental to the success of the operation. The adequacy of the support capacity for the geotechnical and geological conditions that will be met during mining and the set pressures can ....  read more

 

Ground Behaviour about Longwall Faces and its Effect on Mining

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C501722/07/2015
Author: M Kelly | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

Longwall geomechanical research being carried out by CSIRO's Exploration and Mining and Strata Control Technology has resulted in a better understanding of rock failure mechanisms ....  read more

 

High Capacity Underground Coal Mining: Scoping Study - Defining the System Needs for a 15MTPA Longwall Operation

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C1500801/11/2007
Author: David Reece, Greg Rowan, Gideon Chitombo | The Safety Managers, CSIRO Exploration & Mining, University of Qld, SMI

The objective of this project was to conduct an in-depth scoping study to identify the requirements of future high capacity and sustainable underground coal mining in Australia, with a 15MTPA operation from a single underground longwall system as the target (abbreviated as L15).  ....  read more

 

High Voltage Scoping Study

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C902501/10/2001
Author: George Kirk | Ampcontrol

This project concluded the Australian Coal Industry was lagging general industry in the wider use of higher voltage and energy equipment. There were regulatory impediments to the introduction of higher voltages and poor face equipment performance utilisation and voltage regulation.

It ....  read more

 

Improving the Efficiency of Longwall Face Recoveries by Managing the Geotechnical Threats

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C1302201/12/2006
Author: David Hill, Rob Thomas | Strata Engineering (Australia)

Longwall face recovery is the most involved recurring geotechnical problem faced by operators, with major loss potential should problems occur. However, unlike most geotechnical aspects of coal mining, very little research has been undertaken on the issue of conventional longwall ....  read more

 

Intrinsically Safe (IS) Active Power Supplies

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C901119/06/2002
Author: Andre DeKock, Jim Birch, T Tang | SIMTARS

Intrinsic safety is an explosion protection method applied to electrical apparatus. The basic concept behind intrinsic safety relies on energy limitation to ensure that an ignition of an explosion cannot occur by either spark ignition or thermal ignition.

Generally intrinsically safe ....  read more

 

Light Pipes Lighting System

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C1601712/05/2009
Author: Ron McPhee, Graham Eyre and Andrew Castleden | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

In this project, a new style of lighting system was developed for use on underground machinery, such as longwall shearers, continuous miners and mobile vehicles.

A 'light engine' constructed from multiple, high power light-emitting diodes was developed and mounted within a ....  read more

 

Longwall AFC Chain Tension Meter

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C1103601/02/2008
Author: Peter Lugg, Zhiqiang Guan, Bart Pienaar | CRCMining

Evaluation of the downtime statistics of two longwall mines studied as part of the Landmark Automation Project showed that AFC (Armoured Face Conveyor) and BSL (Beam Stage Loader) chain related failures accounted for 27% of all downtime.  Virtually all of these failures were caused by ....  read more

 

Longwall Guidance using Inertial Navigation

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C901501/06/2001
Author: Daivd Reid, David Hainsworth, Jonathon Ralston, Ronald McPhee | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

The principal objective of the project was to demonstrate that inertial navigation techniques could be used to accurately and independently survey the three-dimensional path of a longwall shearer throughout the mining process. This objective was successfully achieved and the significance for ....  read more

 

Longwall Horizon Control

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C401801/09/1999
Author: David Hainsworth, Ron McPhee, Jonathon Ralston | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

Objectives: The objective of this project was to evaluate the use of ground probing radar (GPR) to identify the interface between coal and roof/floor material in order to establish  ....  read more

 

Longwall Top Coal Caving Application Assessment in Australia

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C1301801/05/2006
Author: Patrick Humphries, Brett Poulsen, Ting Ren | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

This project has utilised several proprietary and commercially available modelling packages along with field observations and expert opinion to investigate the assessment of LTCC for Australian coal mining conditions.  The project conducted detailed investigations into the various ....  read more

 

Matching Longwall Support Design to Industry Requirements in Weak Ground

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C1403015/12/2009
Author: Winton Gale | SCT Operations Pty Ltd

This executive summary is written to summarise the key outcomes, however it is difficult to transfer the context of those outcomes with the executive summary. It is essential to read the report to understand the action and limitations of face supports within the mining environment.

 ....  read more

 

Monitoring and Stability Assessment of a Punch Longwall Roadway Developed using Highwall Mining Technology

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C900701/12/2000
Author: Baotang Shen, Mary Fama, J Boldna, D Adhikary, A Maconochie. Appendix III - David Hill | CSIRO Exploration & Mining, GeoTek Solutions. Appendix III - Strata Engineering

This report describes the results of ACARP research project C9007. The project was established to assist an innovative roadway development trial at Kenmare 2, South Blackwater Mine. A continuous highwall mining system (CHM) was used to develop the roadways for a proposed punch longwall ....  read more

 

Monitoring Systems and Geological Structure Assessment Leading to Improved Management of Mining Conditions

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C1301501/10/2006
Author: Terry Medhurst | AMC Consultants

This main aim of the project was to investigate issues associated with longwalling in weak mining conditions and in particular, ground response when mining through faults. The objectives of the project were:

  • By combined longwall support and microseismic
 ....  read more

 

New Assessment Method for IS Active Power Supplies

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C1103409/01/2007
Author: Andre De Kock, M Gido | Simtars

The aim of this project was to develop an alternative assessment and testing method to be used when certifying active intrinsically safe (I.S.) power supplies for use in potentially explosive locations.  The work was to provide testing Authorities and institutions with a procedure ....  read more

 

Optimisation of Longwall Mining Layouts under Massive Strata Conditions and Management of the Associated Safety and Ground Control Problems

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C701926/04/2000
Author: Russell Frith, B McKavanagh | Strata Engineering (Australia)

Industry concern regarding the potential hazards of longwall extraction beneath massive strata units is not just a recent phenomenon. It can be traced back to the initial attempts at longwall extraction in Australia in the early 1960's and has been in part linked to the continued increase in ....  read more

 

Prediction and Management of Adverse Caving about Longwall Faces

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C702005/09/2001
Author: Winton Gale | SCT Operations

This study was commissioned to provide a greater understanding of the ground caving process and the implications to longwall support operation and design. The major focus of the study was on the caving events which cause rock falls on the longwall face or which cause operational problems.

 ....  read more

 

Quantification of Fault Uncertainty and Risk Management in Underground Longwall Coal Mining

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C702501/06/2001
Author: Roussos Dimitrakopoulos | WH Bryan Mining Geology Research Centre University of Queensland

Fault uncertainty and risk have widely recognized adverse impacts on the exploration and mining of underground coal deposits, especially longwall mining. Geological uncertainties may cause significant delays in production schedules, impose substantial changes to mine plans, reduce expected ....  read more

 

Research & Trial of Digital Video Technology in Underground Mines (Including CD video demonstrations)

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C1002501/08/2002
Author: Paul Cuddihy, George Poropat | A Tripple R, CSIRO Exploration & Mining

This project report consists of two separate reports, one prepared by A Triple R and one prepared by the CSIRO Division of Exploration & Mining. The CSIRO report provides a technical description of the equipment, techniques and procedures utilised in the project while the A Triple R ....  read more

 

Review of Regenerative Technologies to Increase Longwall Advance Speeds

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C1202203/03/2015
Author: Russell Smith | WBM

Longwall coal mining utilises hydraulically operated roof supports. The roof supports are often separated from the pumping hardware by more than 500m. It is perceived throughout the mining industry that the long hoses connecting the pumps and the roof supports ....  read more

 

Rib Mechanics and Support Systems

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C305901/12/1998
Author: Stan Ostle, M Rataj, Bruce Hebblewhite, Jim Galvin | ANI Arnall, University of New South Wales

The control of coal mine rib stability is an increasingly important issue, particularly with a trend towards narrower roadways, greater depths, more rapid development and the need to accommodate fast moving abutment stresses from retreating longwalls.  Rib control management is a priority ....  read more

 

Simplification of Powered Roof Supports

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C1602001/08/2009
Author: Peter Lugg | CRCMining

The nature of the coal reserves will largely define the capacity and format of future powered roof support structures.  The productivity of future longwall mine installations will depend on the level of automation and reliability of the electro hydraulic components and systems. ....  read more

 

Skills Shortage - Identification of Needs for Engineering Training in Longwalls

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C1602128/11/2008
Author: Peter Lugg, Dewen Liu, Rebecca Hill | CRC Mining

This report investigates the impacts of the skills shortage on the productivity of longwall faces.  The scope is limited to the supervisors and crews that operate, maintain and procure the longwall face equipment.  Using a combination of face-to-face interviews and written ....  read more

 

Stage One: Self-Drilling Bolt Automation Trial

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C2505805/01/2017
Author: Mark Levey | OKA Rock Bolt Technologies

There are several self drill roof bolt concepts and proto-types that have been trialled in the industry. However, there are none that chemically provide pre-tension to the installed bolt.  OKA technology also allows for the self drill rock bolt installation to be automated.

 ....  read more

 

The Influence of Subsidence Cracking on Longwall Extraction

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C501601/08/2000
Author: George Klenowski | Australian Mining Engineering Consultants, Oaky Creek Coal

The aims of this research project have been to document recorded mine inflow rates, particularly where flooding of underground workings has occurred; to monitor the upward propagation of subsidence cracking; to conduct  ....  read more

 

Tow Force Measurement of Various Mining Equipment

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C2301201/05/2015
Author: Daniel Carpenter | BMT WBM

Towing of heavy and light equipment is a vital part of coal mining and occurs regularly. The principle risks involved with the failure of towing components include:

· Uncontrolled release of energy when components fail:

o Safety Alert 156 Towing of Longwall chocks ....  read more

 

Underground Thick Seam Mining: Old Problems, New Technologies

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C603801/11/1999
Author: Bruce Hebblewhite, Jeff Rowlands | University of NSW, CMTE

In Australia, single pass longwall is the most favoured method of extracting coal from 4.5m to 6m thick seams.  More than six billion tonnes of measured underground mineable coal reserves in Australia exist in thick seams (more than 4.5m) in difficult geological conditions. Often, mining ....  read more

 

Water Jet Cable Bolt Drill Development & Field Demonstration

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C2302001/07/2016
Author: Scott Adam, Joel Kok, David Barry, Dihon Tadic | CRCMining

Drilling and installation of secondary support is considered to be a critical yet low-productivity aspect of underground coal mining. It presents a major obstacle to the vision of rapid roadway development. Rock bolt drills are considered to be high-risk equipment, with key operational risks ....  read more

 

Water Jet Cable Bolt Drill Investigation

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C2101801/08/2013
Author: Dihon Tadic, Scott Adam & Joel Kok | CRCMining

Cable bolt drilling remains a hazardous and labour-intensive task in underground roadway development, primarily due to the manual handling of drill rods and subsequent operator exposure to machinery and unsupported rock mass. A novel technique for continuously drilling cable bolt holes using a ....  read more

 

Underground

Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C24066Development Of An Alternative Electronic Spark Test Apparatus

Since a high profile incident in 1998, where two widely deployed IS cert...

C23005Use Of Plastic Metal In Underground Coal Mines For Minor Repair On Flameproof Equipment

The potential for a gas or dust explosion arising from hot work and ...

C25070Shuttle Car Steering System Optimisation

The condition of roadways in underground mines is of great importance, a...

Underground

Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C21028Automated Design Of Multi-Pass Dragline Strips Using 3D-Dig

This project aimed  to research, develop and implement a design...

C25030Guidelines For Coal Mine Open Pit Final Void Closure And Relinquishment - Addressing Uncertainty In Coal Mine Environmental Planning

This report addresses uncertainties faced by coal mine operators whe...

C25029Open Path Boundary Monitoring

The objective of this work was to investigate suitable options and imple...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C22031Investigation Of The Graviton Separator At Pilot Scale

Vast quantities of fine coal, worth hundreds of millions of dollars, are...

C24046Online Particle Size Monitoring In Coal Preparation

The principle of using laser diffraction as a means of measuring a v...

C24048Thickener Underflow Monitor

The aim of this project was to develop an instrument that is capable of ...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C24060Structural Differences Between Coking Coals Of The Sydney Basin And Other Sources

Cokes made from Australian coals of relatively low fluidity can have...

C25045Stage One - Assessment Of In Situ High-Temperature Strength Of Cokes

A typical high-CSR Australian coke was subjected to high-temperature...

C24053Effect Of Coke Reactivity Upon Coke Strength With Focus On Microstructure

The primary aim of this project was to examine changes in the microstruc...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C19054VAM Enrichment With A Two-Stage Adsorption Process

Treatment of ventilation air methane (VAM) with cost-effective technolog...

C24017Improving Methods For Quantifying Fugitive Emissions From Open Cut Coal Mining

Fugitive emissions from open cut coal mines are usually estimated fo...

C21065Flame Arresting Mechanisms And Flameproof Device For VAM Mitigation

The overall goal of this project was to study the gas flammability limit...

Mine Site Greenhouse Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

C19025Governance Strategies To Manage And Monitor Cumulative Impacts At The Local And Regional Level

ACARP levy contributors should order this report in the normal manner – ...

Mining And The Community

NERDDC

National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook

NERDDC