ACARP ACARP ACARP ACARP
Underground                                       reports

Underground

Our underground health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives include strengthening ventilation and gas management technology, minimising risks from fires and explosions, advancing emergency response technologies, reducing operating costs and improving reliability of subsidence predictions.


Detection and Prevention of Fires and Explosions (52 Reports)

A Practical Demonstration and Evaluation of Jet Engine Inertisation Techniques

Get Report
C601917/07/1997
Author: Stewart Bell | SIMTARS

Surface and underground trials of the GAG-3A jet inertisation device were held at the Collinsville No 2 underground coal mine from 7th to 18th April 1997.  The selection criteria for the trial developed by the Moura related Task Group 5 Committee were met with the exception that ....  read more

 

A Practical Research Study Into The Environmental And Physical Impacts During An Underground Mine Inertisation With The GAG Jet

Get Report
C2300629/07/2014
Author: Martin Watkinson, Ken Liddell, Sean Muller, Mladen Gido and John Nissen | Simtars

Rio Tinto Coal Australia, Queensland Mines Rescue Service and Simtars conducted a partial inertisation of an underground coal mine using the GAG-3A engine in February 2014.

This project monitored the environmental conditions and the flow of inert GAG gases into and around the mine ....  read more

 

Active Explosion Barrier: Refinement of CFD Model and Application of Real Development Panels

Get Report
C2200701/04/2014
Author: David Proud, Greg Collecutt | BMT WBM

After review of the successful ACARP funded active barrier demonstration trials at CSIR Klopperbos in 2012, two new physical models were introduced into the CFD active barrier simulations - a coal dust wetting model and a spray breakup model. Both of these models were shown to have a ....  read more

 

Active Explosion Barriers

Get Report
C702801/03/1999
Author: David Humphreys | ACIRL

In recent times, the effectiveness of traditional methods of coal dust explosion suppression in underground mines has come under increasing scrutiny. Current methods are based upon the widespread distribution of stone dust in mine roadways, and the construction of various types of ....  read more

 

Active Explosion Barriers

Get Report
C1402701/11/2012
Author: David Humphreys, Julian Greenwood, David Proud and Greg Collecutt | SkillPro Services, BMT WBM

ACARP Project C14027 Active Explosion Barriers, has been undertaken as part of a programme to demonstrate the feasibility of suppressing a coal dust explosion by the deployment of an active explosion barrier as opposed to traditional passive explosion barriers.  Coal dust explosions will ....  read more

 

Active Explosion Barriers and Stone Dusting Options

Get Report
C601801/05/1998
Author: Berger Jensen, Terry O'Beirne | ACIRL

Current Australian stone dusting regulations have their research origins as far back as the 1920s. However, changing mining practices have progressively increased the generation of coal dust and reduced its particle size. As particle size affects the explosibility of coal dusts, current  ....  read more

 

AiroDust Additional Testing To Satisfy Inspectorate Requirements

Get Report
C2000201/02/2015
Author: Matt Ryan | Mining Attachments (Qld) Pty Ltd

AiroDust is the commercial name given to the foam treatment process of coal mine approved stone dust. The process involves mixing the AiroDust additive (ADA) with mine water to create stone dust slurry. The slurry is then processed to create a designed foam to a specific density that is sprayed ....  read more

 

Alternate Approach To Intrinsically Safe System Certification

Get Report
C1202322/11/2004
Author: Andre De Kock, Jill Stuthridge | Simtars

The aim of this project was to determine the research needs of the industry with regard to the testing and certification of intrinsically safe equipment. By identifying the actual needs, the submission of future research projects can be coordinated and focused on a ....  read more

 

An Evaluation of Flammability Test Methods for Conveyor Belts

Get Report
C503301/11/1997
Author: Vivek Apte | WorkCover NSW

This report describes the work undertaken on a project - "An Investigation of Conveyor Belt Flammability Test Methods". The project, fully funded by Australian Coal Research Limited under the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP), was undertaken by WorkCover NSW ....  read more

 

Bagged Barrier Testing at Overseas Facilities

Get Report
C703022/12/2000
Author: David Humphreys, Terry O'Beirne | ACIRL

The bag-barrier system, invented by the South African group, CSIR-Miningtek, and now used in Australia, represents a significant change to the management of explosion suppression in underground coal mines. This report summarises the initial testing of the bagged barrier leading to its recent ....  read more

 

Better Indicators of Spontaneous Combustion

Get Report
C503101/10/2000
Author: David Cliff, Fiona Clarkson, Ray Davis, Tony Bennett, Michael Smalley | SIMTARS

The aim of this project was to improve the ability to detect spontaneous combustion and to be able to monitor the changes in intensity of any spontaneous combustion event.

Large scale testing of 5 coal samples (16 tonne) lead to successful self heatings on two occasions.

 ....  read more

 

Commissioned Study on Frictional Ignition

Get Report
C702901/06/2000
Author: Jan Oberholzer | SIMTARS

Most cases of frictional ignition in Australia are caused by cutter picks striking a high silica material (conglomerate roof, sandstone roof or material associated with geological structures) in gassy conditions. Keeping picks sharp when cutting this material, spraying the cutting mechanism ....  read more

 

Controlling Underground Heatings Using Innovative Fire-Suppressant Injection - Proof of Concept Study

Get Report
C1402105/02/2009
Author: Shenggen Hu, Sheng Xue | CSIRO Exploration and Mining

One of the major safety issues in underground coal mines is spontaneous heating and combustion resulted from the natural oxidation of coal and other carbonaceous materials.  Underground heating can result in production delays and, if uncontrolled, loss of life, property and ....  read more

 

Cost Efficient Alternative to Stone Dust for Suppressing Coal Dust Explosions

Get Report
C901026/07/2001
Author: Ray Davis | SIMTARS

Stone dust has long been used as an incombustible material spread over the walls and floor of coal mines to act as a heat shield and to arrest a propagating coal dust explosion. The stone dust (limestone) is raised into suspension along with the coal dust in an explosion and blocks the transfer ....  read more

 

Demonstration of Active Explosion Barrier Technology

Get Report
C801001/03/2001
Author: David Humphreys | ACIRL

In recent times, the effectiveness of traditional methods of coal dust explosion suppression in underground mines has come under increasing scrutiny. Current methods are based upon the widespread distribution of stone dust in mine roadways, and the construction of various types of explosion ....  read more

 

Demonstration of Active Explosion Barrier Technology

Get Report
C900801/04/2003
Author: David Humphreys | SkillPro

In recent times, the effectiveness of traditional methods of coal dust explosion suppression in underground mines has come under increasing scrutiny. Current methods are based upon the widespread distribution of stone dust in mine roadways, and the construction of various types of explosion ....  read more

 

Demonstration of Innovative Radon Detecting Technique for Locating Underground Heating Area from Surface

Get Report
C1200501/09/2003
Author: Sheng Xue, Jianming Wu, Rao Balusu, Rhys Worrall | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

Spontaneous combustion is a significant hazard in some coal mines. In Australia there is currently no remote sensing technique practically available for Australian coal mine operators to locate underground spontaneous combustion of coal remotely from the surface.

The main ....  read more

 

Design & Efficiency of Dust & Water Explosion Barriers Extension to C4030

Get Report
C543028/01/1997
Author: Birger Jensen, Terry O'Beirne | ACIRL

Current Australian stone dusting regulations have their research origins as far back as the 1920s. Changing mining practices since then have progressively increased the generation of coal dust and reduced particle sizes, therefore the early researched inertisation levels have been rendered ....  read more

 

Design and Efficiency of Dust and Water Barriers in Modern Australian Coal Mines

Get Report
C403001/01/1996
Author: Birger Jensen, Terry O'Bierne | ACIRL

The objectives of the first stage of this project which has now been completed were to examine the strengths and weaknesses of current stonedust and water barrier designs as they apply in Australian coal mines and to ....  read more

 

Detection of Heating of Coal at Low Temperature: Stages 1 and 2

Get Report
C1001519/12/2007
Author: Fiona Clarkson | Simtars

Spontaneous combustion has long been a problem in the mining industry. Suspected or actual cases of spontaneous combustion can cause production losses of the order of $1million per day. Research overseas and in Australia has shown that a range of volatile organic compounds are present from ....  read more

 

Development of a Borehole Tool for Investigating Otherwise Inaccessible Areas in Underground Coal Mines

Get Report
C1401701/10/2006
Author: David Cliff, John Lakeland | MISHC, University of Queensland, Geotechnical Systems Australia

This report deals with the third phase of a project with the overall objective to develop an investigation tool for use in sealed or inaccessible areas of underground coal mines.  The device would gather information, mainly gas concentration data and perhaps visual information.  ....  read more

 

Development of a Borehole Tool for Investigating otherwise Inaccessible Areas in Underground Coal Mines - Parts 1 and 2

Get Report
C1103301/11/2004
Author: David Cliff, John Lakeland | University of Queensland, Minerals Industry Safety and Health Centre, Geotechnical Systems Australia

This is the second phase of a project that set out to develop an investigation tool for use in sealed or inaccessible areas of underground coal mines. The device would gather information, mainly gas concentration data and perhaps visual information. This would aid in the rapid identification ....  read more

 

Development of a Database on Intrinsic Safety Information

Get Report
C1402201/05/2008
Author: Andre De Kock, CS Winters | Simtars

The need for this project was identified in a previous ACARP project C12023 where a lack of knowledge with regard to Intrinsic Safety was identified as an area that needed to be addressed by future projects. The aim of this project was to establish a database of information with regard to ....  read more

 

Development of a Significant Incident Identification and Evaluation System

Get Report
C1103117/12/2003
Author: David Cliff, Roy Moreby, Stephen Meadowcroft | University of Queensland, University of New South Wales

The aim of this project was to improve the capabilities of an underground coal mine to rapidly and accurately investigate any abnormal gas concentrations detected in the mine. This was achieved through the development of and implementation of support systems that can assist the mine ....  read more

 

Dissemination of Information on Spontaneous Combustion (Including "Spontaneous Combustion - A Review

Get Report
C600120/08/1998
Author: David Cliff, Carmel Bofinger | SIMTARS

Comprehensive resources dealing with spontaneous combustion have been developed and disseminated throughout the queensland coal industry.  In August 1994, an explosion occurred at Moura No 2 underground mine, resulting in the loss of lives and the closure of the mine. In the subsequent ....  read more

 

Effect of Equipment Placement in a Flameproof Enclosure

Get Report
C1302401/05/2008
Author: Ray Davis, James Birch, Ashraf Chowdhury, Bipin Parmar, David Soady | Simtars

The main purpose of this research was to simplify the process of pressure testing flameproof enclosures to allow for some degree of flexibility in the layout of internal components without the need for retesting. Because of the cost and time spent in the testing of a flameproof enclosure, ....  read more

 

Effectiveness of Slurry Stone Dusting in Preventing the Progression of Underground Explosions

Get Report
C1302301/10/2005
Author: Jan Oberholzer, AT Bennett, Ray Davis | Simtars

The application of dry limestone dust or stone dust in sufficient amounts is the accepted method of inertising coal dust deposited in coal mine roadways thereby preventing the occurrence or propagation of a coal dust explosion.

The use of slurry dusting, where the stone dust ....  read more

 

Frictional Ignition Testing High Tensile Steel Combined With Copper

Get Report
C2200601/07/2014
Author: Myles Wylie | Innovative Engineering Products

This report was commissioned to examine the frictional effects of high tensile steel coalesced with copper.

Frictional impact experiments are conducted in a laboratory to compare two designs of high tensile steel strikers (steel grade AS 1444 - 4340).  One striker type is blank ....  read more

 

High Energy Electrical Systems in Coal Mines

Get Report
C703501/09/1998
Author: Anthony Reczek | Ampcontrol SWG

The project deals with the use of high energy electricity on explosion protected equipment in hazardous zones in underground coal mines. It examines the increased demand for energy in production plant as a means to improve productivity. It also examines the present explosion  ....  read more

 

High Voltage Cable Test Apparatus

Get Report
C308301/12/1994
Author: Ken Byers | SIMTARS

This report presents the results of a survey into operational practices affecting the safe use and testing of high voltage trailing cables (HVTC). Recommendations are made for the research into new techniques for prooftesting HVTCs in potentially hazardous environments.  Additional ....  read more

 

Inertisation and Mine Fire Simulation Using Computer Software

Get Report
C1402501/05/2007
Author: Stewart Gillies, Hsin Wei Wu | Gillies Wu Mining Technology

Inertisation is a technique that has been used around the world to enhance the safety of underground coal mine areas either to avoid the potential for a combustion event or to stabilise a situation after an ignition, fire or heating. The term normally refers to the fact that the  ....  read more

 

Integrated Pick Back Spray to Eliminate Frictional Ignitions when Using Continuous Miners

Get Report
C702701/07/2001
Author: Chris Allanson, Frank Roxborough | University of New South Wales

The project is concerned with eliminating one of the major potential sources of explosion initiation, namely, 'incendive sparking' originating from the cutter picks of continuous miners. The problem arises when the picks come into contact with rocks that contain significant amounts of hard ....  read more

 

Investigate Testing Facilities for Ventilation Devices and Explosion Barrier Components: Second Phase

Get Report
C1200915/04/2004
Author: Jan Oberholzer, David Pearson | Simtars, TestSafe

This project consisted of two phases. The first phase of this project sought to determine the feasibility of using non-destructive testing methods to evaluate the strength of ventilation control devices (VCDs) to withstand the required overpressures. The second phase critically evaluated ....  read more

 

Investigation of Heatings and Related CO and H2 Gas Flow Patterns in Longwall Goafs

Get Report
C1502216/04/2009
Author: Ting Ren, Rao Balusu | CSIRO Exploration and Mining

This report presents a summary of the research work carried out under the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) project C15022, entitled "Investigation of heatings and related CO and H2 gas flow patterns in longwall goafs". The main objective of the project ....  read more

 

Investigation Of The Aging Effect Of Electronic Components In Power Supplies

Get Report
C1600620/12/2013
Author: Andre De Kock and M D Kleinhans | Simtars

The aim of this project was twofold. Firstly the aging effect of electronic components used in active power supplies installed in underground coal mines was investigated. This is of concern as the aging characteristics of components could have an influence on the certification of the active ....  read more

 

Investigation of the Potential Lightning Impacts on Underground Coal Mines

Get Report
C2200310/03/2017
Author: David Cliff | The University of Queensland

The objective of this research was to develop and apply computer models to evaluate the potential lightning impacts on underground coal-mining.  These models can be utilised to assist in the design of effective controls.  This project will provide a significantly improved level of ....  read more

 

Locating Underground Heatings with Surface Radon Detecting Technique

Get Report
C1302101/10/2006
Author: Sheng Xue | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

The main objective of the project was to investigate the underlying science of the radon technique by undertaking detailed studies of temperature dependence of radon emanation from coal and radon transport in strata through the studies of theoretical review, laboratory tests and field ....  read more

 

Mine Fire Simulation in Australian Mines using Computer Software

Get Report
C1202601/11/2004
Author: Stewart Gillies, Andrzej Wala, Hsin Wei Wu | University of Queensland, University of Kentucky

A comprehensive research project into mine fires study applying the VENTGRAPH mine fire simulation software, preplanning of escape scenarios and general interaction with rescue responses has been completed. The project relied on substantial mining company and site ....  read more

 

Neutral Earth Reactor Study

Get Report
C302231/12/1994
Author: D Birtwhistle, K Byers, B Stojanovic, P Galvin | Queensland University of Technology, SIMTARS

In recent years mining electrical equipment on various coal mine sites in Qld have experienced failures of 3.3kV system insulation.  The reported failures have occurred at the load side of the  ....  read more

 

Optimisation of Inertisation Practice

Get Report
C900601/12/2001
Author: Rao Balusu, Michael Wendt, Shen Xue | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

The main objective of the project was to develop optimum and effective strategies for inertisation during longwall sealing operations to achieve goaf inertisation within a few hours of sealing the panel. The project has combined the detailed analysis of the performance of various inertisation ....  read more

 

Proactive Inertisation Strategies and Technology Development

Get Report
C1202001/12/2006
Author: Rao Balusu, Ting Ren, Patrick Humphries | CSIRO Exploration & Mining

The frequency of heating incidents in longwall panels has increased significantly in recent years, leading to production losses and safety risks for a number of coal mines. Review of oxygen ingress patterns into longwall goaf at various mines has shown that in some cases the oxygen ....  read more

 

Research into the Failure of 11KV Plugs & Adaptors Used in Underground Coal

Get Report
C503201/01/2000
Author: Joe Tusek | Pacific Power International

The experience of Oceanic Coal (Teralba, NSW) with failures of High Voltage (HV) underground plugs and adaptors led them to approach Pacific Power to investigate the performance of HV plugs and adaptors used in underground mining. The results of the initial investigations were considered ....  read more

 

Research into the Failure of 11kV Plugs and Adaptors used in Underground Coal Mines

Get Report
C403101/08/1997
Author: Joe Tusek, Geoffrey Walsh | Pacific Power International Technical Services

This report details the accelerated ageing study carried out during the first stage of Project 4031. Also presented are plans for the next stage of the project.   The first element of the project was a survey sent to 60 mines to gain access to the body of experience contained within ....  read more

 

Safety Aspects of IP55 Enclosures used in High Fault Level Underground Coal Mines

Get Report
C403221/10/1996
Author: Ken Byers, D Birthwhistle, J Crisp, G Weber | SIMTARS

An investigation has been conducted to examine the safety aspects of IP55 sheet metal enclosures used for housing switchgear in underground coal mines. The study examined the possibility of venting these enclosures to minimise the hazards to personnel from enclosure bursting and from the ....  read more

 

Scoping Study: Application of New Forms of Fire Suppression and Hydrocarbon Absorption Materials to Underground Coal Mines

Get Report
C2101501/09/2013
Author: David Humphreys | SkillPro Services

This project was undertaken at the request of the underground research committee in response to some reports of alternative forms of fire suppression and gaseous hydrocarbon encapsulation. The project examined the potential application of these products and methods to the underground coal ....  read more

 

Sealing, Monitoring and Low Flow Goaf Inertisation

Get Report
C600201/07/1997
Author: John Brady | Cook Resource Mining, JP Brady Statutory Management Services

This project tested the feasibility of the Low Flow Inertisation concept and successfully demonstrated that the Tomlinson Inert Gas Generator has considerable potential for the elimination of potential explosion hazards which may exist in some circumstances when areas of a mine containing ....  read more

 

Stone Dust Requirements

Get Report
C1001801/04/2003
Author: David Humphreys | ACIRL

This project was intended to quantify the nature of coal and stone dust fallout in Australian coal mines and to use the results to determine the factors affecting optimal stone dusting strategies. A fairly simple method of collecting roadway dust fallout samples was developed and refined ....  read more

 

Stone Dust Requirements and Options

Get Report
C801113/10/2000
Author: David Humphreys, Terry O'Beirne | ACIRL

This project investigated the level of stone dusting required to inert Australian coals for the purposes of preventing the propagation of a coal dust explosion. A large number of coal samples were obtained from Australian mines and tested to determine individual inerting levels and other ....  read more

 

Stone Dusting Process Advance

Get Report
C1601430/01/2009
Author: Matt Ryan, David Humphreys | Mining Attachments (Qld) Pty Ltd, SkillPro Services Pty Ltd

The coal mining industry has, for many years, used dry stone dust or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the prevention of the propagation of coal dust explosions throughout their underground mines in Australia.

One of the major limitations of dry stone is the interruption to ....  read more

 

Stone Dusting Requirements and Options

Get Report
C900901/03/2002
Author: David Humphreys | SkillPro, ACIRL

This project was approved as an extension to the original project C8011 which investigated the level of stone dusting required to inert Australian coals for the purposes of preventing the propagation of a coal dust explosion. The main objective of the original project was to determine the ....  read more

 

The Development of a Borehole Tool for Investigating Otherwise Inaccessible Areas in Underground Coalmines

Get Report
C1601530/01/2009
Author: David Cliff, John Lakeland | Minerals Industry Safety and Health Centre, University of Queensland and Geotechnical Systems Australia Pty Ltd

This report deals with the fourth and final phase of a project.  The overall objective was to develop an investigation tool for use in sealed or inaccessible areas of underground coal mines.  The device would gather gas concentration data and visual information.  This would aid ....  read more

 

Validation of Spontaneous Combustion Parameters

Get Report
C1302801/07/2008
Author: David Humphreys | SkillPro Services Pty Ltd

An attempt has been made to use the results of two large scale spontaneous combustion testing methods to validate the parameters used in the spontaneous combustion models developed by the author.  It was originally intended to use the results of the large-scale tests and derived oxidation ....  read more

 

Underground

Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C25070Shuttle Car Steering System Optimisation

The condition of roadways in underground mines is of great importance, a...

C20041Polymer-Based Alternative To Steel Mesh For Coal Mine Strata Reinforcement

The report details work undertaken to develop a polymer-based alternativ...

C22003Investigation Of The Potential Lightning Impacts On Underground Coal Mines

The objective of this research was to develop and apply computer mod...

Underground

Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C19023MWD For Super-Resolution Control Of R.A.B. Drilled Blast-Hole Stand-Off Distances

Open-cut coal mine blasting losses are serious. Incorrect blast stan...

C21005RAB Drill Rig Top Of Coal Detection While Drilling

Accurately detecting the approaching top of a coal seam prior to blastin...

C24064Top Of Coal Detection In A Rotary Air Blast Drill Rig

Accurately detecting the approaching top of a coal seam prior to bla...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C24046Online Particle Size Monitoring In Coal Preparation

The principle of using laser diffraction as a means of measuring a v...

C24048Thickener Underflow Monitor

The aim of this project was to develop an instrument that is capable of ...

C24044RFID Residence Time Modelling

The project had two main objectives, the first to provide residence ...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C24060Structural Differences Between Coking Coals Of The Sydney Basin And Other Sources

Cokes made from Australian coals of relatively low fluidity can have...

C25045Stage One - Assessment Of In Situ High-Temperature Strength Of Cokes

A typical high-CSR Australian coke was subjected to high-temperature...

C24056Relationship Between Internal Pressure And Coke Strength And Implications For Semi Soft Coking Coals In Blends

The objective of this project was to explore the relationships between t...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C24017Improving Methods For Quantifying Fugitive Emissions From Open Cut Coal Mining

Fugitive emissions from open cut coal mines are usually estimated fo...

C21065Flame Arresting Mechanisms And Flameproof Device For VAM Mitigation

The overall goal of this project was to study the gas flammability limit...

c21064Development Of A Catalytic Mitigation System For VAM - Stage 3 - 20 Litre Per Min VAM Flow Technical Development Unit

This report describes work undertaken towards the development of a p...

Mine Site Greenhouse Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

C19025Governance Strategies To Manage And Monitor Cumulative Impacts At The Local And Regional Level

ACARP levy contributors should order this report in the normal manner – ...

Mining And The Community

NERDDC

National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook

NERDDC